Soils differ from country to country, and state to state within different countries.
In this guide, we outline the different soils worldwide in different countries.
Summary – Different Soils Found In Different Countries & Climates
Soils form differently for a range of reasons, with parent material and climate being two of the major reasons
When taking into consideration these factors and others, which change from one geographic location to another, different soils are found in different parts of the world
Soils differ by their color, texture, structure, and chemical, physical, and biological composition (soils4teachers.org)
Some of these soil biomes for example include urban, desert, tundra, prairie, tropical (savanna and forest), temperate/boreal, alpine, wetland and volcanic soils. There’s 10 major soil biomes worldwide with different characteristics (soils4teachers.org)
Soils have different soil orders, and there’s 12 major orders worldwide. These soil orders include Alfisols, Andisols, Aridisols, Entisols, Gelisols, Histosols, Inceptisols, Mollisols, Oxisols, Spodosols, Ultisols, and Vertisols. There’s also rocky land, shifting land, and ice/glacier land (soils4teachers.org)
Some soil orders match up with different biomes
In some of the individual countries …
The US has 12 different types of soils, and each State has a different representative soil
There’s over 1,800 British soils
India might have 8 main soils, plus and ‘Other Soils’ category
Australia might have 6 main types of soil
So, each country has different soils spread across each region of the country
Firstly, Why Do Soils Differ Worldwide – From Country To Country, & In Different Climates?
Because there are several different factors that determine how soils develop and form, and these factors differ from country to country.
The type of climate is a factor in how soils develop and form, and climates differ not only country to country, but state to state as well.
Read more about the factors that determine how soil forms and develops in this guide.
Some of these soil biomes for example include urban, desert, tundra, prairie, tropical (savanna and forest), temperate/boreal, alpine, wetland and volcanic soils.
Soil orders include Alfisols, Andisols, Aridisols, Entisols, Gelisols, Histosols, Inceptisols, Mollisols, Oxisols, Spodosols, Ultisols, and Vertisols.
Some soil orders match up with different biomes.
Soils In The United States
Soils across the 50 states in the United States vary:
Soils are the product of climate, organisms and topography, acting on parent (geologic) material over time.
Thus the great diversity of geologic materials, geomorphic processes, climatic conditions, biotic assemblages and land surface ages in the United States is responsible for the presence of an enormous variety of mineral and organic soils. (Most of the mineral soils contain significant quantities of organic matter, but not enough to qualify for classification as organic soils.)
Overall, there’s 12 different types of soil orders in the US, each with different characteristics. Read more about them at:
Each state in the US has a different representative soil. You can read more about the representative soil for each US state at:
Soils In The UK
… there are over 1,800 British soils with a range of different profile types, despite the modest land area and limited range of cool, temperate climates (soils.org.uk)
You can view a map of the basic soil types across Britain here:
The UK Soils Observatory also has a soilscape map you can check out on their website.
Soils In India
Soils in India can be broken down into:
- Alluvial Soil
- Black Soil
- Yellow Soil, and Red Soil
- Laterite Soil
- Arid Soil
- Saline Soil
- Peaty Soil
- Mountain Soil
- Other Soils
– toppr.com, and researchgate.net
A more in depth breakdown of Indian soils, what locations they are found in, and what can be grown in them can be read at:
Soils In Australia
Soils in Australia can be broken down into:
- Stony and Shallow Soils
- Soils Of The Alpine & Perhumid Zones
- Soils Of The Humid Zones
- Soils Of The Seasonably Humid Zones
- Soils Of The Semi Arid Zones
- Soils Of The Arid Zones
A comprehensive summary and breakdown of Australian soils can be read at:
- http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/[email protected]/Previousproducts/1301.0Feature%20Article801966
9. http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/[email protected]/Previousproducts/1301.0Feature%20Article801966