Countries With The Most Expensive, & Cheapest Electricity Prices (Electricity Prices Around The World)

Countries With The Most Expensive, & Cheapest Electricity Prices (Electricity Prices Around The World)

This is a quick guide outlining the countries in the world with the most expensive, and cheapest electricity prices.

 

Global Average Electricity Price

  • In March 2019, the average price of electricity globally was 0.15 US Dollars per KWh (globalpetrolprices.com)

 

Countries With Most Expensive Electricity Prices

As of March 2019, some of the countries with the most expensive average prices of electricity (in USD per kWh) were:

  • Bermuda – 0.40 (40 US cents per kWh)
  • Germany – 0.35
  • Denmark – 0.34
  • Belgium – 0.32
  • Jamaica – 0.30
  • Japan – 0.29
  • Portugal – 0.29
  • Ireland – 0.26
  • Italy – 0.26
  • Barbados – 0.26
  • El Salvador – 0.25
  • Spain – 0.25
  • Guatemala – 0.25
  • Australia – 0.25
  • Liechtenstein – 0.25
  • Netherlands – 0.25
  • Czech Republic – 0.23
  • UK – 0.23
  • Uruguay – 0.22
  • Belize – 0.22
  • Austria – 0.22
  • Peru – 0.21
  • New Zealand – 0.21
  • Uganda – 0.21
  • Switzerland – 0.21
  • Luxembourg – 0.21

– globalpetrolprices.com

 

As of 2018, the countries with the most expensive electricity prices (in US cents per kWh) were:

  • Solomon Islands – 99 (US cents per kWh)
  • Vanuatu – 60
  • US Virgin Islands – 51.9
  • Cook Islands – 50.2
  • Tonga – 47
  • Jamaica – 44.7
  • Niue – 44.3
  • Marshall Islands – 41.6
  • Tuvalu – 36.6
  • Germany – 35
  • Denmark – 33
  • Kiribati – 32.7
  • Belgium – 29.1
  • Netherlands – 
  • Italy – 28.4

– worldatlas.com

 

Countries With Cheapest Electricity Prices

As of March 2019, some of the countries with the cheapest average prices of electricity (in USD per kWh) were:

  • Burma – 0.02 (2 US cents per kWh)
  • Iran – 0.03
  • Iraq – 0.03
  • Qatar – 0.03
  • Egypt – 0.03
  • Kazakhstan – 0.04
  • Zambia – 0.04
  • Azerbaijan – 0.04
  • Algeria – 0.04
  • Trinidad & Tobago – 0.05
  • Ukraine – 0.05
  • Afghanistan – 0.05
  • Saudi Arabia – 0.05
  • Pakistan – 0.05
  • Bahrain – 0.05
  • Georgia – 0.06
  • Bangladesh – 0.06
  • Ghana – 0.06
  • Malaysia – 0.06
  • Russia – 0.07
  • Tunisia – 0.07
  • Nigeria – 0.07
  • Vietnam – 0.07
  • India – 0.08
  • Mexico – 0.08
  • Macedonia – 0.08
  • China – 0.08
  • Nepal – 0.08
  • Serbia – 0.08
  • United Arab Emirates – 0.08
  • Sri Lanka – 0.08
  • Armenia – 0.08

– globalpetrolprices.com

 

Average Electricity Price In The United States

The avg. electricity price in the US in March 2019 was:

  • 0.14 USD (14 US cents) per kWh (globalpetrolprices.com)

 

The avg. electricity price in the US in 2017 was:

  • 10.4 US cents per kWh retail price (eia.gov)

 

Average Electricity Price In Other Countries Of Note

In select economies in 2017, electricity prices (in USD per MWh) were:

  • Germany – 344
  • Italy – 263
  • Australia – 237
  • Japan – 227
  • UK – 206
  • Brazil – 200
  • France – 187
  • Singapore – 160
  • USA – 129
  • Turkey – 113
  • Morocco – 111
  • Korea – 109
  • Canada – 109
  • South Africa – 101
  • Argentina – 87
  • Indonesia – 79
  • China – 78
  • India – 75
  • Mexico – 64
  • Russia – 63
  • Saudi Arabia – 23
  • Turkmenistan – 0

– iea.org

 

Wikipedia has a list of electricity prices globally in a table at:

  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electricity_pricing

You can sort the table for cheapest to most expensive, or vice versa.

 

Considering Purchasing Power Parity With Electricity Prices

The above data is based on pure USD amounts.

What is not considered is cost of living and purchasing power of the different countries.

You can view purchasing power parity in relation to electricity prices for different countries at:

  • https://www.iea.org/statistics/prices/

As one example, we can see Australia’s raw electricity price average is higher than that of Brazil, Singapore, Morocco and Turkey, but all of these countries have more expensive electricity when considering cost of living, purchasing power parity, adjusted exchange rates, etc.

 

… But, Don’t Just Look At National Averages – Look At State Based Electricity Prices Too

Looking at electricity prices by country may not be specific or deep enough because prices can vary by State and cities as well.

Electricity prices can shoot up or down significantly in each State compared to the national average.

Two good examples of this are in the United States, and Australia. 

 

State based electricity prices in the US can be seen at:

  • https://www.eia.gov/electricity/state/

Hawaii, California, Alaska, and Massachusetts are among those States with some of the highest electricity prices.

 

State based electricity prices in Australia can be seen at:

  • https://gobulk.com.au/australian-electricity-prices/

South Australia currently has the highest electricity prices.

 

Sources

1. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electricity_pricing

2. https://www.energycouncil.com.au/analysis/electricity-prices-around-the-world-what-is-the-impact-of-renewable-charges/

3. https://www.globalpetrolprices.com/Democratic-Republic-of-the-Congo/electricity_prices/

4. https://www.eia.gov/electricity/state/

5. https://www.iea.org/statistics/prices/

6. https://gobulk.com.au/australian-electricity-prices/

7. https://www.worldatlas.com/articles/electricity-rates-around-the-world.html

Difference Between Energy And Electricity

Difference Between Energy And Electricity

The difference between energy and electricity is an important distinction to make.

Energy and electricity impact society and industries in different key ways.

This guide briefly explains that difference, and impact.

 

Difference Between Energy & Electricity

Energy is a broad term that describes the use of different energy sources for different applications like electricity, fuel and other energy based purposes.

Electricity, on the other hand, is a specific form of directly usable energy.

 

What Is Energy?

The phrase energy can be used in a number of ways, and has several different applications.

Firstly, energy can be split into primary and secondary energy sources.

Primary energy sources are usually the raw or natural form of energy like:

Secondary energy sources are the energy sources that we as humans can use directly or use more conveniently. For example, the above primary energy sources can be refined and turned into a secondary energy source like electricity (in the case of coal for example), or converted directly into electricity (in the case of sunlight via a solar panel and converter).

Secondly, we use energy is several key sectors in society – for electricity in the power sector (which can be used in other industries like the residential, commercial and industrial sectors), for heating and cooling, and for fuel in the transport sector.

Right now, globally, we use mainly:

  • fossil fuels and renewables for electricity
  • petrol and diesel-fuelled cars for transport (but hybrid, electric and hydrogen fuel cell cars are increasing in numbers)
  • and for heating, oil and natural gas boilers in buildings (but electrification and district heating may feature in the future more prominently)

 

Another way to describe energy might be:

  • “Energy” is a broad term that includes sources such as petrol, diesel, gas and renewables, among other things.

– theconversation.com

 

What Is Electricity?

The power/electricity sector is a sector by itself – that’s how important electricity is to society.

Electricity is a form of directly usable energy (as opposed to a raw primary form of energy).

It comes from several different types of energy sources, such as fossil fuels, uranium, and renewable energy sources.

Different energy sources produce electricity in different ways. For example, coal power plants might use steam to spin a turbine and create electricity. Whereas, solar panels might turn sunlight/photons into DC energy, before DC energy is run through an inverter and turned into AC energy and used in the grid or in households.

 

Another way to describe electricity might be:

  • “Electricity” is a specific form of energy that can be produced from many different sources.

– theconversation.com

 

Sources

1. https://theconversation.com/factcheck-qanda-are-south-australias-high-electricity-prices-the-consequence-of-renewable-energy-policy-93594

2. https://www.bettermeetsreality.com/primary-secondary-energy-sources-what-they-are-examples-of-each/

3. https://www.bettermeetsreality.com/can-renewable-energy-replace-fossil-fuels-meet-demand-power-the-world-moving-towards-100-renewable-energy/

4. https://www.bettermeetsreality.com/renewable-energy-definition-with-examples/

5. https://www.bettermeetsreality.com/non-renewable-energy-definition-with-examples/

Factors That Impact Electricity Prices (What Causes Them To Increase, & Decrease)

Factors That Impact Electricity Prices (What Causes Them To Increase, & Decrease)

This guide outlines the factors that can impact electricity prices, and can cause them to increase and decrease.

 

Summary – Factors That Impact Electricity Prices

  • There are several factors that can impact electricity prices. Some factors can influence prices much more than others at any one time, and multiple factors can influence prices at once
  • Supply and demand by producers (like utilities) and the market (electricity consumers) can play a large role, but the government and other bodies can too
  • Apart from direct factors, there can also be external or bigger picture factors at play, that are more indirect, and impact on these other more direct factors e.g. a poor economy can influence investment in electricity, production, demand, and so on
  • Price changes can be temporary (changing hourly or daily), or more permanent and longer term (lasting months and years)
  • Final electricity rates, and rate structures, can differ between the individual cities, States and countries
  • It’s worth noting the difference between electricity prices and energy prices, where electricity is the use of energy sources to produce electricity to be used by the consumer, whereas energy might include other energy forms like gas as a usable form of power/fuel

 

A good summary of electricity prices and how they are set and how they change might be:

  • Electricity prices generally reflect the price to ‘build, finance, maintain, and operate power plants and the electricity grid’

– the EIA via wikipedia.org

From this description, we can see that electricity prices are far more comprehensive than just the primary energy source they come from. They involve whole electricity systems they have to work in a practical and feasible way, and can be impacted upon by factors external to the electricity system itself (as well as the factors within the electricity system).

 

Let’s take a look at the factors that can impact electricity prices in any one place (note – these are just some of the more prominent factors – they aren’t a comprehensive list):

 

Supply & Demand

This is more of a general factor than a specific factor. Supply and demand has a lot to do with the economic factors that impact electricity prices.

As two very basic examples:

  • Surplus electricity fed into the electricity grid at any one time can lead to cheap or even negative electricity prices 
  • A lack of supply of power into the electricity grid can lead to more expensive electricity prices

Increased and decreased supply of electricity can be caused by a range of factors.

 

Cost Of Power Generation/Production 

The cost to produce electricity is factored into the price of electricity that the user pays.

Different energy sources cost different amounts to deliver one unit (such as one KWh) of electricity.

Over the lifecycle of the energy source (construction, operation including fuel costs, maintenance etc.), this is called the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE).

Hydro, solar PV and onshore wind can have low LCOE’s in some countries because whilst in operation, costs are incredibly low – fuel is free. Compare this to some fossil fuel energy sources where fuel has to be paid for or there are higher operating costs.

 

Investment In Infrastructure & Networks

Building new transmission lines and poles, replacing old lines and poles, upgrading of power grids, electricity metering, and other infrastructure/network maintenance and development can be very expensive.

These investment costs for infrastructure and networks can be passed onto customers in their electricity bill.

 

Infrastructure Quality/Distribution

The reliability and quality of an electricity system can impact prices:

  • Larger currents require costlier infrastructure to minimize power loss, so consumers with low power factors get charged a higher electricity rate by their utility (wikipedia.org)

In this instance, we see that increases in electricity prices aren’t always bad as long as it can be proved that the reason for the price rise is an investment that leads to an increase in the quality or reliability of the electricity service.

 

Government Regulation, Subsidies Or Taxes

Intervention by government in the energy market, via regulations and standards (especially standards within energy portfolios), subsidies, taxes, or other measures, can all impact electricity prices for consumers.

They can also make production easier, harder, cheaper or more expensive for suppliers and new electricity retailers and competitors. They may also offer tariffs or pay outs to individual and residential energy producers that are feeding energy into the grid.

Green schemes for renewable energy targets, and renewable energy bonus schemes and feed in tariffs are two examples.

 

Multi Tiered Government Regulation

This happens in the US where the different levels of government have different levels of regulation over the energy market:

  • In standard regulated monopoly markets like the U.S., there are multilevel governance structures to set electric rates. The rates are determined through a regulatory process that is overseen by a Public Service Commission. There are Public Service Commission compliance requirements to the state legislature. In addition, The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) oversees the wholesale electricity market along with the interstate transmission of electricity. Public Service Commissions (PSC), which are also known as Public Utility Commissions (PUC), regulate the retail rates of utilities within each state. Different utility types are regulated differently in each state as well.

– wikipedia.org

 

Some governments (like California for example) may have a renewable portfolio standard (that may or may not be legislated) that sets a minimum amount of each type of renewable energy that has to be used for electricity in an energy mix. These types of standards and regulations can impact the economic feasibility of an energy system as a whole, and also the profit, operating costs and overall economics of individual energy sources that have to ramp up and down, consider capacity of production, and other factors.

 

Local Weather Patterns

Doesn’t always impact prices directly, so local weather conditions can impact prices indirectly through supply and demand.

Three examples are:

  • Hot weather usually means a demand for cooling, and cold weather usually means a demand for heating. Both these times can drive up demand for electricity, and with it, the prices
  • Energy sources like solar and wind are subject to sun and wind conditions. When the sun is out and the wind is blowing, there is usually good supply and prices can be pushed down, and vice versa. 
  • Low rainfall can contribute to there not being enough water flow or water volume for hydro energy setups and dams on rivers

 

Profit Motive Of Utilities

  • Some utility companies are for-profit companies, and their prices will be influenced by their intrinsic need for financial return. These utility companies can exercise their political power within existing legal and regulatory regimes, to both guarantee that financial return, and, reduce competition from other sources, such as distributed generation [distributed generation includes sources such as rooftop solar and residential solar – essentially sources that aren’t commercial size or utility]

– wikipedia.org

 

Other Factors That Can Impact Electricity Prices

  • Power Outages – interrupts electricity supply and can cause other interruptions to the grid that can drive up prices
  • The Economy – recessions, downturns and times of economic uncertainty or poor economic conditions can lead to lack of investment, lowered supply, and increased prices. On the reverse, good economic conditions can lead to more competition and development in the energy sector that can lead to cheaper prices, or a better quality electricity service
  • Being Energy Dependent/Being An Energy Importer – when States or countries are reliant on other States or countries for energy and electricity and not on their own supply, they can experience electricity price volatility in line with the State or country they are importing from
  • Phase Balancing – where an electricity network has unbalanced loads, an electric company may charge by demand to balance them

 

The Cost To Generate Electricity vs The Cost To Supply It As A Service

The LCOE (Levelized Cost Of Electricity) of different energy sources in the US can be seen at:

  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electricity_pricing

Hydro, Wind, Solar PV and Combined Cycle Gas are some of the cheapest.

But, this is the cost over the lifetime of these energy sources to generate a unit of electricity.

Cost of an energy source is only one factor of electricity provision as a service.

In reality, electricity is a service where there are many moving parts and whole systems needed to deliver that service reliably to end users.

Energy sources like solar and wind are variable, and often require other more consistent energy sources to assist with meeting supply and demand at different times. They may even need energy storage in the form of batteries. As a service to provide electricity with variable energy sources in the mix in this instance, renewables can be more expensive or cause economic problems with other energy sources (when they have to turn on and shut off, ramp up and ramp down, and can’t run to capacity to provide return on investment or cover operating costs)

Fossil fuels on the other hand because they aren’t variable, can function on their own and might be cheaper as a service (even if they cost most in terms of LCOE).

Different short term and long term priorities must be balanced, as well as economic, social, environmental, and other priorities.

 

Some Other Notes On Electricity Prices

  • Residential, commercial and industrial customers may pay different electricity tariffs/prices (there are different reasons for this such as the economics of stepping down voltages, political lobbying, and efficiency of the services to each type of customer – just to name a few)
  • Wholesale and retail electricity prices differ – wholesale is usually cheaper as different retailers purchase wholesale electricity and add various charges to it before delivering it to homes
  • Due to the complications of electricity generation, the cost to supply electricity varies minute by minute (wikipedia.org)
  • In a standard regulated monopoly like the US, there are different variables, but also multilevel governance structures to determine rates
  • Electricity can’t be stored as easily as gas – so, it generally needs to be used at the same time as it is produced, unless it’s stored in a battery
  • Read more about rate structures in the US at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electricity_pricing

 

Sources

1. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electricity_pricing

2. https://www.energycouncil.com.au/analysis/electricity-prices-around-the-world-what-is-the-impact-of-renewable-charges/

Renewable Energy Might Have A Smaller Land Footprint, & Be Better For Land Than Fossil Fuels

Renewables Might Have A Smaller Land Footprint, & Be Better For Land Than Fossil Fuels

Elsewhere on this site, we have mentioned that fossil fuels may be more land efficient than renewables.

But, recent information by several sources indicates that this might not be the case.

Below we summarise the land footprint of renewables vs fossil fuels, and outline which might be better overall for land use and land degradation.

 

Summary – Comparing Renewable Energy vs Fossil Fuels For Land Footprint, Land Use & Land Degradation

  • If just measuring land footprint and land efficiency of renewables vs fossil fuels in terms of the power density of infrastructure and power plants, fossil fuels may look land efficient
  • But, what these measurements don’t take into account is ALL fossil fuel dedicated land (for roads, pipelines, storage facilities, refineries, and so on
  • When taking into account all land and various other factors for the different energy sources, it’s a State by State assessment, but renewables can be far more land efficient than fossil fuels, or use less land footprint overall. Renewable energy land can also be multi use (e.g. using solar and wind on the same land plot, or combining renewable energy land use with agriculture just as another example … whereas fossil fuel land tends to be solely fossil fuel use and dedicated.
  • In addition, future solar technology development may increase power density of this power source
  • With these things taken into account – future renewable energy projections and expansions look far more land efficient, have a smaller land footprint, and have a higher power density
  • Furthermore, renewable energy may also lead to less land pollution/degradation than fossil fuel sources – so, the land and surrounding environment (and any humans and animals that are exposed to the area) will probably end up in better health

 

Some Sources Say Fossil Fuels Are More Land Efficient Than Renewables

Some sources like phys.org summarise:

  • When measuring land use by power density – the average electrical power produced in one horizontal square metre of infrastructure …
  • Biomass, hydro and wind … take up the most space. [Whilst] Natural gas and nuclear take [the] least
  • … renewable energies generally need more space than fossil fuels

 

But, This Why Other Sources Say Renewables Might Have A Smaller Land Footprint Than Fossil Fuels

Paraphrased and summarised from cleantechnica.com (the full article link can be found in the resources section):

  • [some sources say that wind and solar farms would take up and degrade a lot of on shore and offshore land, and also forests]
  • [what previous sources don’t take into account though is the multiple uses of wind and solar land – they can be paired together, or even paired with agricultural land use]
  • [previous sources also don’t fully compare the total land footprint of fossil fuels vs renewables … they mainly only compare the actual power plant and wind/solar farm land]
  • [In California for example, most of the land used for fossil fuels can only be used for fossil fuels … i.e. it is dedicated fossil-fuel land, and isn’t multi use like solar or wind land ]
  • [Once gas wells, road, storage facilities, fueling stations, gas pipes, refineries and all fossil fuel dedicated land is taken into account …] there is less actual footprint on the ground [in California] than the fossil infrastructure
  • [Solar can also be placed on buildings, which has no land footprint, and wind turbines have a very small base land footprint]
  • [If future offshore wind seems too land intensive … this can be substituted with more onland solar PV]
  • [Previous renewable energy land footprint studies might include errors like counting] land that was set aside for future project expansion and double counting of land where projects overlap. [They may] also fail to account for the actual odd shapes of wind farms and includes areas beyond wind farm boundaries

 

  • If you conveniently ignore the substantial landscape footprint of the [fossil fuel] plants’ associated … upstream infrastructure, then wind energy and solar power falsely appear to use more land than fossil-fueled power plants or nuclear reactors.
  • Just between solar power and wind energy, it’s easy to see how 3 million hectares of land (the same amount currently used by oil and gas production) could fully power the entire country’s electric demand virtually in perpetuity. As turbines or solar panels wear out, new ones can be installed in the same space, or that land area can be converted back to its original use. Meanwhile, oil and gas land use is unsustainable: wells run dry, wells have to be shut-in properly after the resources are exhausted, and new wells have to be drilled elsewhere and use more land.

– cleantechies.com

 

Solar technology may increase power density and increase total land efficiency in the future:

  • … new three-dimensional designs could reach over three to five times today’s [power density] figures [for solar rooftop PV]

– phys.org

 

Future renewable energies to focus on with a growing population and land efficiency worries may be:

  • … rooftop solar will be the best bet—providing clean power that doesn’t compete with other land uses. Offshore wind will help too
  • … very low power densities of biomass make it a difficult sell [as a future renewable energy source], especially since the land on which it is produced can sometimes be used for growing food instead

– phys.org

 

Renewables Also Tend To Cause Less Land Pollution & Have Other Benefits Compared To Fossil Fuels

Several reports also indicate land used for 

  • [renewable energy] space will be less polluted [than fossil fuel space]

– phys.org

 

Cleantechies.com also list the land destruction nd land loss caused by fossil fuels and nuclear plants in their article.

 

Sources

1. https://cleantechnica.com/2018/08/26/100-renewables-requires-less-land-footprint-than-reliance-on-fossil-fuels-in-california-realitycheck/

2. https://phys.org/news/2018-08-renewable-energy-sources-space-fossil.html

3. https://www.forbes.com/sites/michaelshellenberger/2018/05/08/we-dont-need-solar-and-wind-to-save-the-climate-and-its-a-good-thing-too/#728d5978e4de

4. https://cleantechies.com/2015/07/06/study-proves-fossil-fuels-way-worse-for-land-use-than-renewables/

Is Renewable Energy Efficient? (Solar, Wind, Hydro, Geothermal & More)

Is Renewable Energy Efficient?

There’s a few different ways you can look at the efficiency of renewable energy.

In this guide, we outline how efficient renewable energy might be across those different areas.

 

Summary – Efficiency Of Renewable Energy

  • Renewables tend to keep much more of their original energy input than fossil fuels, and in many cases produce more energy than the input amount (i.e. if efficiency is over 100%)
  • Much of this has to do with the fact that renewables don’t require a lot of the extraction and refinement processes (where energy is lost and there is waste) like fossil fuels do
  • The energy footprint for renewables really only comes from production, and any waste produced
  • In addition, renewables don’t require the use of energy to mitigate or address environmental and social problems like fossil fuels do
  • Biomass and bioenergy might be one of the exceptions to the above generalisations, as biomass and bioenergy does involve refining and processing with some types energy conversion (biocrops and biofuels are good examples)
  • Efficiency numbers and %’s are usually provided as a national average, but can also vary from State to State depending on different variables and factors with different renewable energy sources
  • Other analysis’ of energy efficiency mention that we have to take into account theoretical maximum efficiency, and the capacity factor of different energy sources. We also have to consider how each energy source operates in reality in a real energy system and power grid when other energy sources are also providing power to a grid. Economically, when we take into account these factors and consider efficiency, renewables still come out ahead because they don’t even have to be efficient … they just have to run enough over the course of time to pay for their capital costs … whereas the marginal operating costs of fossil fuels should place pressure on them to be efficient.

 

How Efficient Is Solar Energy?

In the US, as a % of energy input retained when converting fuel to electricity:

  • Solar creates 207% of it’s original energy 

– hortidaily.com

 

How Efficient Is Wind Energy?

In the US, as a % of energy input retained when converting fuel to electricity:

  • Wind creates 1164% of it’s original energy 

– hortidaily.com

 

How Efficient Is Hydro Energy?

In the US, as a % of energy input retained when converting fuel to electricity:

  • Hydro creates 317% of it’s original energy 

– hortidaily.com

 

How Efficient Is Geothermal Energy?

In the US, as a % of energy input retained when converting fuel to electricity:

  • Geothermal creates 514% of it’s original energy 

– hortidaily.com

 

How Efficient Is Biomass?

In the US, as a % of energy input retained when converting fuel to electricity:

  • Biomass retains 29% of it’s original energy 

– hortidaily.com

 

How Efficient Are Tidal & Wave Energy?

*We currently don’t have stats for tidal and wave energy.

But, woodharbinger.com says this about tidal energy:

  • [tidal energy] … is more efficient than wind energy due to the density of water and more efficient than solar energy due to its high ~80% conversion efficiency

 

Why Is Renewable Energy So Efficient Compared To Fossil Fuels?

From the above numbers, we can see that renewable energy is generally more efficient than fossil fuels. 

As described by Vox.com, renewable energy is generally more efficient across all three of the electricity, transport and heating/cooling sectors:

  • Renewable electricity … is simpler [across the entire process to get to the stage to deliver electricity]. It involves no combustion and fewer conversions [than the fossil fuel conversion process] generally.
  • … Electric motors are simpler than combustion engines, with fewer moving parts, substantially lower maintenance costs, and much higher efficiency.
  • … Electrified heating and transportation sectors can be integrated into electricity grid operations, creating system efficiencies

 

Efficiency Can Actually Vary From Place To Place (Depending On Different Variables)

There can be variables to energy efficiency in different States and cities, such as how direct the sunlight is, what renewable technology is used, infrastructure used, plus other factors that can impact the final efficiency number of an energy source or method.

So, the above numbers are averages, rather than State or city specific averages/numbers.

 

How Energy Source Efficiency Numbers Are Calculated

Something that should be noted is that the numbers are based on economic efficiency:

  • Hortidaily.com explains the methodology of calculating the averages in their resource 

Borntoengineer.com also has some information on how to measure the efficiency of an energy generation method.

 

Some Other Notes On The Efficiency Of Energy Sources

Paraphrased and summarised from Michael Barnard on Quora.com, reappearing on Forbes.com:

  • Fossil fuel has to be paid for, where as the sun and wind are provided by nature for free
  • ‘Efficiency is explicitly a measurement of how much of a given resource’s energy potential gets turned into electricity’
  • ‘Solar turns around 20% of it’s energy potential into electricity’ [but the other 80% that is wasted is not expensive and is not really even a waste]
  • ‘Car engines only turn about 20% of the energy in gas into movement, with the rest being waste heat.’
  • ‘Coal plants achieve from 33% to 40% efficiency in the best cases, with the rest being just wasted heat.’
  • ‘Combined cycle gas plants, where the heat is used in addition to the mechanical energy to generate electricity manage to make it up to about 54% efficiency’
  • … with fossil fuels … we are paying for 100% of it plus the costs associated with addressing carbon emissions and other externalities … so it’s ‘arguable that we are paying for 300% of the fuel but only getting 20% to 50% out of it’
  • Each energy source has a Betz’ Limit theoretical maximum efficiency, and the theoretical maximum efficiency of wind energy isn’t that different from a combined cycle gas plant
  • … but, maximum efficiency has to be combined with the capacity factor (how much capacity for energy generation an energy source has in a given year) to determine the electricity generation potential of an energy source
  • Solar capacity factor ranges from 15% to 25%, and modern wind farms range from 40% for onshore to 77% one year for the best offshore site
  • In a real energy grid – renewable energy can be curtailed because they have to exist with nuclear and other baseload forms of generation can’t be turned down quickly
  • Nuclear and other baseload energy sources tend to have worse economics
  • Traditional/legacy forms of electricity generation tend to have low capacity factors … ‘Nuclear is high at 90% because it can’t actually run at less than that capacity factor and pay for itself’ … ‘Coal in the USA was at 60% or so a decade ago, but now it’s at 50% for the country because wind, solar and gas are cheaper so it can’t compete. Many gas plants are at 10% simply because they only turn them on to provide peak power at highest profit’
  • ‘So wind and solar don’t have to be efficient, they just have to run enough over the course of time to pay for their capital costs. Their marginal operating costs are dirt cheap, much cheaper than coal and gas plants.’

 

Sources

1. https://www.bettermeetsreality.com/renewable-energy-vs-fossil-fuels-vs-nuclear-comparison-guide/

2. https://www.hortidaily.com/article/6011458/us-what-is-the-most-efficient-source-of-electricity/

3. https://www.vox.com/energy-and-environment/2019/6/18/18681591/renewable-energy-china-solar-pv-jobs

4. https://www.bettermeetsreality.com/are-fossil-fuels-efficient-coal-oil-natural-gas/

5. https://www.woodharbinger.com/tidal-energy-sustainable-resource/

6. https://www.borntoengineer.com/efficient-form-renewable-energy

7. https://www.forbes.com/sites/quora/2017/11/08/is-solar-energy-less-efficient-than-non-renewables/#7f8b511f4d4a

8. https://www.quora.com/If-solar-energy-is-inefficient-then-how-do-solar-energy-organizations-sell-their-products

Are Fossil Fuels Efficient? (Coal, Oil, Natural Gas)

Are Fossil Fuels Efficient? (Coal, Oil, Natural Gas)

This is a short guide outlining the efficiency of the different types of fossil fuels (coal, natural gas, oil).

We also discuss what factors might contribute to the efficiency of fossil fuels.

 

Summary – Efficiency Of Fossil Fuels

  • Fossil fuels tend not to keep as much of their original energy input as renewables
  • Much of this has to do with the waste and inefficiencies involved with the energy conversion processes of fossil fuels (mining, refining, etc)
  • In addition, energy is used to mitigate or address the environmental and social problems caused by fossil fuels (and this energy is usually not reported on)
  • In comparison, modern renewable energy can be a lot more efficient to convert to usable energy sources like electricity
  • Efficiency numbers and %’s are usually provided as a national average, but can also vary from State to State depending on different variables and factors
  • Other analysis’ of energy efficiency mention that we have to take into account theoretical maximum efficiency, and the capacity factor of different energy sources. We also have to consider how each energy source operates in reality in a real energy system and power grid when other energy sources are also providing power to a grid. Economically, when we take into account these factors and consider efficiency, renewables still come out ahead because they don’t even have to be efficient … they just have to run enough over the course of time to pay for their capital costs … whereas the marginal operating costs of fossil fuels should place pressure on them to be efficient.

 

How Efficient Is Coal Energy?

In the US, as a % of energy input retained when converting fuel to electricity:

  • Coal retains 29% of it’s original energy (this is a national average – so, the actual % can vary State to State)

– hortidaily.com

 

How Efficient Is Natural Gas Energy?

In the US, as a % of energy input retained when converting fuel to electricity:

  • Natural Gas retains 38% of it’s original energy (this is a national average – so, the actual % can vary State to State)

– hortidaily.com

 

How Efficient Is Oil Energy?

In the US, as a % of energy input retained when converting fuel to electricity:

  • Oil Energy retains 31% of it’s original energy (this is a national average – so, the actual % can vary State to State)

– hortidaily.com

 

Why Are Fossil Fuels So Inefficient?

Because of the inputs and resources required to turn fossil fuel into electricity. 

Processing, refining etc. actually requires other fossil fuels to turn a fossil fuel into electricity.

As described by Vox.com:

  • … fossil fuel combustion is wasteful [i.e. it wastes and uses a lot of energy across the conversion process]. Mining or drilling fossil fuels, transporting them, refining them, burning them, converting them to useful energy, using the energy, disposing of the waste and pollution — at every single stage of that process, there is loss. Burning fossil fuels, for electricity, heat, or transportation, inherently involves enormous levels of waste.

 

The Hidden Inefficiency Of Fossil Fuels

Something that isn’t talked about as frequently when it comes to efficiency (perhaps because it might be harder to measure), is that fossil fuels emit greenhouse gases, emit air contaminants, and have other environmental and social consequences.

These problems can use energy to either mitigate or clean up – adding to the potential inefficiency of fossil fuels.

 

How Energy Source Efficiency Numbers Are Calculated

Something that should be noted is that the numbers are based on economic efficiency:

  • Hortidaily.com explains the methodology of calculating the averages in their resource 

Borntoengineer.com also has some information on how to measure the efficiency of an energy generation method.

 

Some Other Notes On The Efficiency Of Energy Sources

Paraphrased and summarised from Michael Barnard on Quora.com, reappearing on Forbes.com:

  • Fossil fuel has to be paid for, where as the sun and wind are provided by nature for free
  • ‘Efficiency is explicitly a measurement of how much of a given resource’s energy potential gets turned into electricity’
  • ‘Solar turns around 20% of it’s energy potential into electricity’ [but the other 80% that is wasted is not expensive and is not really even a waste]
  • ‘Car engines only turn about 20% of the energy in gas into movement, with the rest being waste heat.’
  • ‘Coal plants achieve from 33% to 40% efficiency in the best cases, with the rest being just wasted heat.’
  • ‘Combined cycle gas plants, where the heat is used in addition to the mechanical energy to generate electricity manage to make it up to about 54% efficiency’
  • … with fossil fuels … we are paying for 100% of it plus the costs associated with addressing carbon emissions and other externalities … so it’s ‘arguable that we are paying for 300% of the fuel but only getting 20% to 50% out of it’
  • Each energy source has a Betz’ Limit theoretical maximum efficiency, and the theoretical maximum efficiency of wind energy isn’t that different from a combined cycle gas plant
  • … but, maximum efficiency has to be combined with the capacity factor (how much capacity for energy generation an energy source has in a given year) to determine the electricity generation potential of an energy source
  • Solar capacity factor ranges from 15% to 25%, and modern wind farms range from 40% for onshore to 77% one year for the best offshore site
  • In a real energy grid – renewable energy can be curtailed because they have to exist with nuclear and other baseload forms of generation can’t be turned down quickly
  • Nuclear and other baseload energy sources tend to have worse economics
  • Traditional/legacy forms of electricity generation tend to have low capacity factors … ‘Nuclear is high at 90% because it can’t actually run at less than that capacity factor and pay for itself’ … ‘Coal in the USA was at 60% or so a decade ago, but now it’s at 50% for the country because wind, solar and gas are cheaper so it can’t compete. Many gas plants are at 10% simply because they only turn them on to provide peak power at highest profit’
  • ‘So wind and solar don’t have to be efficient, they just have to run enough over the course of time to pay for their capital costs. Their marginal operating costs are dirt cheap, much cheaper than coal and gas plants.’

 

Sources

1. https://www.bettermeetsreality.com/renewable-energy-vs-fossil-fuels-vs-nuclear-comparison-guide/

2. https://www.hortidaily.com/article/6011458/us-what-is-the-most-efficient-source-of-electricity/

3. https://www.vox.com/energy-and-environment/2019/6/18/18681591/renewable-energy-china-solar-pv-jobs

4. https://www.bettermeetsreality.com/is-renewable-energy-efficient-solar-wind-hydro-geothermal-more/

5. https://www.borntoengineer.com/efficient-form-renewable-energy

6. https://www.forbes.com/sites/quora/2017/11/08/is-solar-energy-less-efficient-than-non-renewables/#7f8b511f4d4a

7. https://www.quora.com/If-solar-energy-is-inefficient-then-how-do-solar-energy-organizations-sell-their-products

Why Do We Need Renewable Energy, & Why Should We Use It?

Why Do We Need Renewable Energy, & Why Should We Use It?

Renewable energy is increasingly seen as one of the pillars of a sustainable society and world.

But, why exactly do we need renewable energy, and why should we use it?

… We’ve looked to provide answers to those questions in this guide.

Additionally, we’ve also outlined some reasons we might not need renewable energy and why we might not use it.

 

Summary – Why We Need, & Why We Should Use Renewable Energy

  • We might need to use renewable energy for a range of reasons, with some of the most important being that it perhaps won’t deplete as we continue to use it like fossil fuels might, and also, it’s probably more environmentally friendly than fossil fuels.
  • We might not use or need renewable energy in the short term for a range of reasons including initial/upfront costs, variability/intermittency, lack of natural resources potential in a given country or region, and other reasons
  • Overall, based on all the pros and cons of renewable energy compared to fossil fuels and nuclear energy, it certainly seems like renewable energy is a wise decision to use to address incredibly important issues like climate change, air pollution, and depletion of natural resources over the short, medium and long term. It can help start addressing some issues immediately, but also help address some issues on a longer term scale
  • Some people outline the use of renewable energy (for electricity and eventually transport and heating), and sequestration or carbon farming of carbon dioxide, as the two most important solutions we have to keeping global warming below certain temperatures in the future

 

Why Do We Need Renewable Energy, & Why Should We Use It?

We already put together a few guides that answers this pretty well:

In these guides, we mention how renewable energy is a sustainable energy source, and has environmental, economic, social and health benefits.

It might be surprising to some how many potential economic benefits like job creation that renewable energy might have in the future.

Environmentally, addressing climate change (because renewables tend to emit less carbon dioxide and greenhouse gases), and air pollution (because renewables tend not to emit air contaminants that dilute air quality) are important considerations.

Socially and health wise, renewables can help address the health issues and costs related to air pollution.

 

Why Don’t We Need Renewable Energy, & Why Shouldn’t We Use It?

It’s not necessarily that we don’t need or shouldn’t use renewable energy, but there can be barriers with transition to any share of renewable energy in a given energy mix.

We’ve put together several guides that outline the problems and challenges with moving towards renewable energy:

So, for example, a country like China may not use as much renewable energy right now for consumption (even though they lead in installed capacity), because their current energy system is heavily reliant on coal.

But, there can also be general barriers common to many cities and countries.

Also, we’ve put together a guide comparing renewable energy sources:

There’s several areas where renewable energy doesn’t compare as favorable as fossil fuels, such as in some capital cost, and variability/intermittency aspects.

 

Other Resources About Renewable Energy Use For The Future

 

Sources

1. Various BMR Guides

Is Renewable Energy Sustainable? (Solar, Wind, Hydro, Geothermal, + More)

Is Renewable Energy Sustainable? (Solar, Wind, Hydro, Geothermal, + More)

In this guide, we look at the different types of renewable energy and outline why they may or may not be sustainable.

 

What Is Renewable Energy?

Essentially, renewable energy sources generally come from natural sources and/or natural processes, replenish quickly (immediately or within the course of a human lifetime), and won’t deplete when used.

 

Why The Different Energy Sources Are Renewable

 

What Is Non Renewable Energy?

Essentially, renewable energy sources generally require processing, take hundreds of thousands or millions of years to replenish, and may deplete in the future as we continue to use them.

 

What Are The Different Types Of Renewable Energy?

 

What Does Sustainable Mean?

There’s many different definitions of sustainability. Sustainability can refer to environmental, economic and other types of sustainability.

But, a general definition of environmental sustainability might be:

  • the ability to to be maintained constantly, especially over the long term
  • … without depleting natural resources, degrading the environment, ecosystems or biodiversity

 

Renewable vs Non Renewable Energy Sources, & Sustainability

Based on the above definitions of renewable energy and non renewable energy, we can already see that non renewable energy sources like fossil fuels and nuclear/uranium may deplete over time the more we mine them and use them.

So, this alone brings their sustainability into question.

But, apart from depletion, we must also look at environmental impact, and any waste produced.

Fossil fuels has some pretty significant negative environmental consequences like greenhouse gas emissions leading to climate change, air pollution from air contaminants, water pollution, land degradation from mining, and so on.

Nuclear also has to deal with mining and nuclear waste.

Renewable energy sources on the other hand do have some environmental consequences, but, they are thought to be nowhere near as large and significant as that of fossil fuels. For example, most renewables have no greenhouse gas emissions or air pollution while in operation.

Sustainable energy tends to be renewable, but not all renewable energy is sustainable.

And, there are different types of renewable energy. Let’s look at them each individually …

 

Is Solar Energy Sustainable?

Solar uses the sun’s energy and tends to be relatively sustainable as there are no emissions, no air pollution, and no waste products.

There is also no human processing of sunlight before it can be converted by solar panels or used for heat.

Solar energy does use a lot of land resources though with the big utility solar farms.

 

Is Wind Energy Sustainable?

Wind energy uses the energy from wind gusts and tends to be relatively sustainable as there are no emissions, no air pollution, and no waste products.

There is also no human processing of wind before it can be converted by wind turbines.

Wind turbines use a lot of land onshore though.

And they can disrupt sea beds and marine life or aquatic life offshore.

 

Is Hydro Energy Sustainable?

Run of river hydro tends to be quite sustainably. There’s no emissions or air pollution.

Hydro electric dams can have some environmental impact such as impacting aquatic life when water is discharged. There’s no emissions or air pollution.

Pumped storage hydro though can use fossil fuels to pump water uphill – so it will need to use solar and wind energy for this application in the future.

 

Is Geothermal Energy Sustainable?

Generally quite clean and sustainable compared to fossil fuels.

But, can release waste steam and gas, can cause hydraulic fracturing, and can cause air and water pollution, amongst other issues.

 

Are Wave & Tidal Energy Sustainable?

Generally quite clean in operation with no emissions or air pollution.

But, can dislodge and have a negative impact on seabeds, and marine life.

 

Are Bioenergy, Biomass & Biofuels Sustainable?

Some can be, whilst others may not be as much.

Some may produce waste after operation, as well as emissions or pollutants like methane, because it requires the combustion or break down of organic matter.

Some types of bioenergy also require human processing, or biocrops may require resources like water, land, fertilizers, pesticides and so on … bringing into question their overall sustainability

 

Other General Sustainability Problems With Renewable Energy Sources

Renewable energy sources do have some environmental impacts.

It’s also worth noting that over the lifecycle of renewable energy, it does have some environmental impact, such as the water and carbon used and emitted to make solar panels, wind turbines, construct hydro dams etc. Materials do also have to be recycled or dumped once a solar panel gets to the end of it’s lifetime as well for example.

There could also be sustainability issues in the future in certain areas like the mining of, and potential scarcity of precious metal like lithium for example, that are used in renewable energy technology like energy storage batteries for power, and for electric vehicles.

 

Sources

1. https://www.bettermeetsreality.com/challenges-problems-with-transitioning-to-renewable-energy/

2. https://www.bettermeetsreality.com/the-different-types-of-renewable-energy-sources-with-examples/

3. https://www.bettermeetsreality.com/non-renewable-energy-definition-with-examples/

4. https://www.bettermeetsreality.com/why-different-energy-sources-are-considered-renewable-solar-wind-hydro-geothermal-more/

5. https://www.bettermeetsreality.com/renewable-energy-definition-with-examples/

Why Different Energy Sources Are Considered Renewable (Solar, Wind, Hydro, Geothermal, & More)

Why Different Energy Sources Are Considered Renewable (Solar, Wind, Hydro, Geothermal, & More)

This is a short guide outlining what renewable energy is, what non renewable energy is, and why exactly different energy sources are considered renewable.

 

What Is A Renewable Energy Source?

Essentially, renewable energy sources generally come from natural sources and/or natural processes, replenish quickly (immediately or within the course of a human lifetime), and won’t deplete when used.

 

What Is A Non Renewable Energy Source?

Essentially, renewable energy sources generally require processing, take hundreds of thousands or millions of years to replenish, and may deplete in the future as we continue to use them.

Non renewable energy includes energy sources like coal, oil, natural gas, and uranium (for nuclear energy).

 

Why Is Solar Considered A Renewable Energy Source?

Solar energy comes from the sun, and as long as the sun is out, we can continuously use solar energy for things like the generation of electricity and for heating (of water for example).

According to most estimates, the Sun is going to last for roughly another 5 billion years (theconversation.com).

 

Why Is Wind Considered A Renewable Energy Source?

Wind energy is available as long as winds are blowing (onshore of offshore), and we can continuously use wind energy for electricity generation.

Wind energy actually comes from the sun (originating from the sun’s radiation warming the Earth and bodies of water that result in an air exchange and wind) (wisepowersystems.com)

As mentioned above, the Sun is expected to last billions more years.

 

Why Is Hydro Considered A Renewable Energy Source?

There’s probably two types of hydropower to consider when classifying hydro as a renewable or non renewable energy source:

Hydro Power On Rivers

Includes hydro electric dams (usually built on large rivers – like the Three Gorges Dam built on the Yangtze River), and run-of-river hydro.

  • Hydropower is called a renewable energy source because it is replenished by snow and rainfall. As long as the rain falls, we won’t run out of this energy source (lsa.colorado.edu)

 

Hydro Power From Pumped Storage Hydro

These hydro energy sources may or may not have access to replenishable water (from rainfall/snow, or from other sources).

 

Why Is Geothermal Considered A Renewable Energy Source?

  • Because its source is the almost unlimited amount of heat generated by the Earth’s core. Even in geothermal areas dependent on a reservoir of hot water, the volume taken out can be reinjected, making it a sustainable energy source (energy.gov)

 

Why Are Bioenergy & Biomass Considered A Renewable Energy Source?

There are many different types of bioenergy and biomass (that are used for bio energy like electricity and heat energy, and for biofuels for transport).

Biomass is considered renewable because it comes from organic matter, and organic matter gets it’s chemical energy from photosynthesis from the sun.

Organic matter can be re-grown fairly quickly.

Some types of bioenergy have somewhat of an asterisk against them though because if they involve biocrops, there can be a question to how resource intensive they might be (using land, water, fertilizers, pesticides, and so on), and how sustainable this might be long term.

 

Why Are Tidal & Wave Energy Considered Renewable Energy Sources?

Wave Energy

  • Waves comes from the wind blowing across the surface of ocean water with enough consistency and force (boem.gov) … and, as mentioned above, wind comes from the Sun’s radiation

Tidal Energy

  • High and low tides are caused by the moon (scijinks.gov)
  • The future of the moon seems to be closely tied to the future of the Sun (futurism.com)

 

Sources

1. https://www.bettermeetsreality.com/renewable-energy-definition-with-examples/

2. https://www.bettermeetsreality.com/non-renewable-energy-definition-with-examples/

3. http://theconversation.com/the-sun-wont-die-for-5-billion-years-so-why-do-humans-have-only-1-billion-years-left-on-earth-37379

4. http://wisepowersystems.com/learn-more/wind-energy-another-gift-from-the-sun/

5. http://lsa.colorado.edu/essence/texts/hydropower.html

6. https://www.energy.gov/eere/geothermal/geothermal-faqs#why_geothermal_energy_renewable

7. https://www.boem.gov/Renewable-Energy-Program-Overview/

8. https://scijinks.gov/tides/

9. https://futurism.com/a-rocky-relationship-is-the-moon-leaving-the-earth

Why Is Renewable Energy Good, & Bad

Why Is Renewable Energy Good, & Bad

Is renewable energy good, or bad? And, why?

In this guide, we outline the reasons on both sides, along with an overall summary of the role of renewable energy in society now and in the future.

 

Summary – The Good & Bad Of Renewable Energy

The good and bad of renewable energy centres around what renewable energy can offer us in comparison to fossil fuels, nuclear energy, and other types of energy (although, some energy mixes may benefit from a mixture of different types of energy over the short or even long term).

There are certainly going to be short term problems and challenges integrating renewable energy into our energy systems, and transitioning over to majority renewable energy supplied electricity and other forms of energy (such as in transport and heating), but it’s likely that the benefits/good parts of renewable energy outweigh the bad aspects over the mid to long term. 

Overall, each region, city, State, and country will have different approaches to their uptake and inclusion of renewable energy in their electricity and energy mixes because the variables and factors facing each are different

 

Why Is Renewable Energy Good?

We outlined why renewable energy is good in our guide on the importance of renewable energy, and the environmental, economic, social and health benefits and advantages it offers.

It’s worth reading the full guide, but as a short summary:

  • Sustainable Energy – Renewable energy can renew itself quickly and might not face the depletion or scarcity of resources issues that fossil fuels might in the future. This makes it a potentially more sustainable energy source
  • Economic Benefits – there’s many potential economic benefits to renewable energy, but something a lot of people might not know is that renewable energy is projected to create more total jobs in the future than fossil fuels. We may also save a lot of money spent addressing other environmental, social, and health related issues that dirtier forms of energy contribute to.
  • Environmental Benefits – there’s many potential environmental benefits, but perhaps the biggest two are reducing greenhouse gas emissions (and helping address climate change and global warming), and reducing air contaminants (helping address outdoor air pollution and reduction of air quality).
  • Social & Health Benefits – there’s several potential social and health benefits, but perhaps the biggest benefits are the reduction of air pollution leading to decreased air quality related health problems and mortality rates, and the subsequent decreased costs and burden on the health system. 
  • Other Benefits – renewable energy may have other direct and indirect benefits. One example is the water that we may save switching from some types of fossil fuel plants (that use water for cooling and other applications) to some types of renewables. Water is a precious resource we need to use efficiently in the future.

 

Why Is Renewable Energy Bad?

We’ve discussed the drawbacks to renewable energy in several guides across the site, with a couple of examples being:

Some drawbacks may only be short term, such as costs for renewables reducing over time, or technological breakthroughs and other solutions solving some problems over time. Some drawbacks can be longer term or permanent.

Potential drawbacks to renewable energy can include:

  • Capital costs
  • Requirement to upgrade existing infrastructure, and build new infrastructure (and power grids and power lines)
  • Reliance on government support (at least in the short term) – although, it should be noted that fossil fuels receive heavy subsidies as well, and have done so for at least the last 100 years
  • Decentralization presenting siting and transmission issues
  • Intermittency and variability
  • Overcapacity
  • Grid stability
  • Impact on electricity prices
  • Impact on a competitive market
  • Need for other energy sources, or dispatchable energy sources to make the entire system flexible and diverse
  • Need for expensive battery energy storage to make the entire system flexible and diverse
  • Political, social, cultural and institutional barriers
  • Solving penetration into other sectors like transport and heating/cooling (currently, electricity and the power sector is the only sector where renewables has penetrated heavily)
  • Difficulty of market entry
  • How established fossil fuels and other energy sources already are in the energy market
  • Misconception of renewables
  • Environmental problems with each renewables energy source
  • + Other potential issues and drawbacks/problems

 

Other Resources On The Good & Bad Of Renewable Energy

 

Sources

1. https://www.bettermeetsreality.com/importance-renewable-energy-benefits-advantages-social-environmental-economic-health/

2. https://www.bettermeetsreality.com/transitioning-towards-renewable-energy-solutions-strategies-considerations/

3. https://www.bettermeetsreality.com/challenges-problems-with-transitioning-to-renewable-energy/

4. https://www.bettermeetsreality.com/renewable-energy-vs-fossil-fuels-vs-nuclear-comparison-guide/

5. https://www.bettermeetsreality.com/pros-cons-of-fossil-fuel-energy-now-into-the-future/

6. https://www.bettermeetsreality.com/pros-cons-of-renewable-alternative-energy-now-into-the-future/