The Different Types Of Alternative Fuel/Energy For Vehicles

The Different Types Of Alternative Fuel/Energy For Vehicles

Alternate fuel vehicles are becoming more popular.

Some of the reasons contributing to that are finite supplies of fossil fuels like oil that make up gasoline, and the greenhouse gases and air pollution emitted by cars and trucks.

In this guide, we list some alternate vehicle fuels/energy sources, and explain what they are and how they might be used.

 

What Are Alternate Fuel Vehicles

One of two things:

  • vehicles that run on a fuel other than traditional petroleum fuels (petrol or Diesel fuel)
  • any technology of powering an engine that does not involve solely petroleum (e.g. electric car, hybrid electric vehicles, solar powered etc.)

– wikipedia.org

 

  • A dedicated, flexible fuel, or dual-fuel vehicle designed to operate on at least one alternative fuel.

– afdc.energy.gov

 

List Of Some Alternative Fuels

Alternate fuels to petroleum fuels (petrol or diesel) might include:

  • Biodiesel
  • Natural gas and liquid fuels domestically produced from natural gas
  • Propane (liquefied petroleum gas)
  • Electricity
  • Hydrogen
  • Blends of 85% or more of methanol, denatured ethanol, and other alcohols with gasoline or other fuels
  • Methanol, denatured ethanol, and other alcohols
  • Coal-derived, domestically produced liquid fuels
  • Fuels (other than alcohol) derived from biological materials
  • P-Series fuels

– afdc.energy.gov

There are also other alternate fuel being used or in development.

 

What The Different Alternative Fuels Are

Electricity (used in Plug In, & Hybrid Vehicles)

  • Electricity can be used in Hybrid Electric (HEV), Plug In Hybrid Electric (PHEV), and All Electric (AEV) vehicles. It can also be used in Hydrogen fuel cell vehicles via an electrochemical reaction
  • Hybrids are fueled with liquid fuels, like gasoline, but use batteries to recapture energy otherwise lost during braking (ultimately boosting fuel economy). They don’t plug in.
  • Plug In Hybrids are powered by an internal combustion engine and an electric motor that uses energy stored in a battery. The vehicle can be plugged in to an electric power source to charge the battery.
  • All Electrics use a battery to store the electric energy that powers the electric motor. EV batteries are charged by plugging the vehicle in to an electric power source.

– afdc.energy.gov

Read more about the different types of electric vehicles in this guide.

 

Biofuel (used in Diesel vehicles)

  • Biodiesel is a renewable fuel that can be manufactured from vegetable oils, animal fats, or recycled cooking grease for use in diesel vehicles.
  • Like petroleum diesel, biodiesel is used to fuel compression-ignition engines.
  • Biodiesel, which is most often used as a blend with petroleum diesel fuel, can be used in many diesel vehicles without any engine modification.
  • Biodiesel blend B20 ranges from 6% to 20% biodiesel blended with petroleum diesel. Another blend, B5 (a biodiesel blend of 5% biodiesel, 95% diesel), is also commonly used in fleet vehicles.

– afdc.energy.gov

 

Ethanol (used in Flexible Fuel Vehicles)

  • Ethanol is a widely used renewable fuel made from corn and other plant materials.
  • It is blended with gasoline for use in vehicles.
  • More than 98% of gasoline in the U.S. contains some ethanol.
  • One common blend of ethanol is E10 (10% ethanol, 90% gasoline)
  • Flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs) have an internal combustion engine and are capable of operating on gasoline and any blend of gasoline and ethanol up to 83%.

– afdc.energy.gov

 

Hydrogen (used in Fuel Cell vehicles)

  • Has the ability to power fuel cells in zero-emission FCEVs
  • A fuel cell coupled with an electric motor is two to three times more efficient than an internal combustion engine running on gasoline.
  • Hydrogen can also serve as fuel for internal combustion engines. However, unlike FCEVs, these produce tailpipe emissions and are less efficient.
  • Hydrogen is extracted from different resources
  • Currently, steam reforming, combining high-temperature steam with natural gas to extract hydrogen, accounts for the majority of the hydrogen produced in the United States.
  • Hydrogen can also be produced from water through electrolysis. This is more energy intensive but can take advantage of inexpensive excess renewable energy, such as wind or solar, while avoiding the harmful emissions associated with other kinds of energy production.
  • Fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) are powered by hydrogen.
  • FCEVs use a propulsion system similar to that of electric vehicles, where energy stored as hydrogen is converted to electricity by the fuel cell. Unlike conventional internal combustion engine vehicles, they produce no harmful tailpipe emissions.
  • FCEVs are fueled with pure hydrogen gas stored in a tank on the vehicle.
  • FCEVs are equipped with other advanced technologies to increase efficiency, such as regenerative braking systems, which capture the energy lost during braking and store it in a battery.

– afdc.energy.gov

 

  • A hydrogen car is an automobile which uses hydrogen as its primary source of power for locomotion.
  • These cars generally use the hydrogen in one of two methods: combustion, or fuel-cell conversion.
  • In combustion, the hydrogen is “burned” in engines in fundamentally the same method as traditional gasoline cars.
  • In fuel-cell conversion, the hydrogen is turned into electricity through fuel cells which then powers electric motors.
  • With either method, the only byproduct from the spent hydrogen is water, however during combustion with air NOx can be produced.

– wikipedia.org

 

You can read more about FCEVs (Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles) that use hydrogen in this guide.

 

Natural Gas (used in Natural Gas vehicles)

  • a domestically produced gaseous fuel that is readily available through the utility infrastructure.
  • Whether produced via conventional or renewable methods, this clean-burning alternative fuel must be compressed (CNG) or liquefied (LNG) for use in vehicles.
  • Used in Natural gas vehicles (NGVs) – dedicated, bi-fuel or dual fuel

– afdc.energy.gov

 

Propane (used in Propane vehicles)

  • Propane, also known as liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) or propane autogas, is stored as a liquid, and propane fueling infrastructure is widespread.
  • Used in propane vehicles: dedicated and bi-fuel.

– afdc.energy.gov

 

Emerging Fuels

  • Biobutanol
  • Dimethyl ether
  • Methanol
  • Renewable hydrocarbon biofuels

These fuels may increase energy security, reduce emissions, improve vehicle performance, and stimulate the U.S. economy.

Additional fuels, such as ammonia, may also meet the criteria for alternative fuels when used in limited quantities.

– afdc.energy.gov

 

Sources

1. https://afdc.energy.gov/fuels/

2. https://www.rac.co.uk/drive/advice/emissions/alternative-fuels/

3. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alternative_fuel_vehicle

4. https://www.ergon.com.au/network/smarter-energy/electric-vehicles/types-of-electric-vehicles

5. https://www.energy.gov/eere/electricvehicles/electric-vehicle-basics

6. https://www.bettermeetsreality.com/the-different-types-of-electric-vehicles-hevs-phevs-bevs-aevs-fcevs/

The Different Types Of Hybrid Vehicles: HEV’s, & PHEV’s

The Different Types Of Hybrid Vehicles: HEV's, & PHEV's

There are different types of hybrid cars on the market.

They are generally categorised by the extent to which they use petrol as their primary energy source, and whether they can plug in to an electrical source.

In this quick guide, we outline and explain these different types of hybrid vehicles.

 

Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs)

  • Generally not classified as an electric vehicle because the primary system isn’t an electric system. Generally called a hybrid vehicle
  • Powered by both petrol and electricity – but petrol is the primary and dominant system, whereas electricity is essentially a supplementary system
  • Do not plug in to charge
  • Electric energy is generated by the car’s own braking system to recharge the battery (called ‘regenerative braking’) – the electric motor helps to slow the vehicle and uses some of the energy normally converted to heat by the brakes
  • HEVs start off using the electric motor, then the petrol engine cuts in as load or speed rises.
  • The two motors are controlled by an internal computer which ensures the best economy for the driving conditions
  • HEV examples are the Honda Civic Hybrid and Toyota Camry Hybrid

– ergon.com.au

 

  • A hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) is a type of hybrid vehicle that combines a conventional internal combustion engine(ICE) system with an electric propulsion system (hybrid vehicle drivetrain). The presence of the electric powertrain is intended to achieve either better fuel economy than a conventional vehicle or better performance.
  • Modern HEVs make use of efficiency-improving technologies such as regenerative brakes which convert the vehicle’s kinetic energy to electric energy, which is stored in a battery or supercapacitor. Some varieties of HEV use their internal combustion engine to generate electricity by spinning an electrical generator to either recharge their batteries or to directly power the electric drive motors; this combination is known as a motor–generator. Many HEVs reduce idle emissions by shutting down the ICE at idle and restarting it when needed; this is known as a start-stop system.

– wikipedia.org

 

Plug In Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs)

  • Also known as Extended-Range Electric Vehicles (EREVs)
  • Powered by both petrol and electricity
  • Can recharge the battery through both regenerative braking and ‘plugging-in’ to an external electrical charging outlet.
  • In EREVs, the petrol engine extends the range of the car by also recharging the battery as it gets low.
  • PHEVs vary greatly depending on choice of primary energy source
  • The Toyota Prius favours petrol, while the Mitsubishi Outlander PHEV favors electricity

– ergon.com.au

 

  • A plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) is a hybrid electric vehicle whose battery can be recharged by plugging it into an external source of electric power, as well by its on-board engine and generator.

– wikipedia.org

 

Sources

1. https://www.ergon.com.au/network/smarter-energy/electric-vehicles/types-of-electric-vehicles

2. https://www.ucsusa.org/clean-vehicles/electric-vehicles/how-do-hydrogen-fuel-cells-work#.W-7QmJMzbR0

3. https://www.ucsusa.org/clean-vehicles/electric-vehicles/what-are-electric-cars#.W-7QzZMzbR0

4. https://www.ucsusa.org/clean-vehicles/electric-vehicles#.W-7QupMzbR0

5. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hybrid_electric_vehicle

6. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plug-in_hybrid

The Different Types Of Electric Vehicles: HEVs, PHEVs, BEVs/AEVs & FCEVs

The Different Types Of Electric Vehicles: HEVs, PHEVs, BEVs/AEVs & FCEVs

There are different types of electric cars on the market.

They are generally categorised by the extent to which they use electricity as their energy source, or the technology, systems or motor/s they use to operate and run.

In this quick guide, we outline and explain these different types of electric vehicles.

 

Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs)

  • Generally not classified as an electric vehicle because the primary system isn’t an electric system. Generally called a hybrid vehicle
  • Powered by both petrol and electricity – but petrol is the primary and dominant system, whereas electricity is essentially a supplementary system
  • Do not plug in to charge
  • Electric energy is generated by the car’s own braking system to recharge the battery (called ‘regenerative braking’) – the electric motor helps to slow the vehicle and uses some of the energy normally converted to heat by the brakes
  • HEVs start off using the electric motor, then the petrol engine cuts in as load or speed rises.
  • The two motors are controlled by an internal computer which ensures the best economy for the driving conditions
  • HEV examples are the Honda Civic Hybrid and Toyota Camry Hybrid

– ergon.com.au

 

Plug In Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs)

  • Also known as Extended-Range Electric Vehicles (EREVs)
  • Powered by both petrol and electricity
  • Can recharge the battery through both regenerative braking and ‘plugging-in’ to an external electrical charging outlet.
  • In EREVs, the petrol engine extends the range of the car by also recharging the battery as it gets low.
  • PHEVs vary greatly depending on choice of primary energy source
  • The Toyota Prius favours petrol, while the Mitsubishi Outlander PHEV favors electricity

– ergon.com.au

 

Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs, or AEVs)

  • Also known as ‘plug-in’ EVs as they use an external electrical charging outlet to charge the battery
  • Also known as All-Electric Vehicles (AEVs) because are only powered by electricity with an electric motor, and do not have a petrol engine, fuel tank or exhaust pipe
  • Can also recharge their batteries through regenerative braking
  • Examples are the BMW i3 and the Nissan Leaf

– ergon.com.au

 

Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles (FCEV)

  • Some people don’t classify FCEV’s as electrical cars, but technically they are
  • Fuel cell vehicles combine hydrogen and oxygen to produce electricity (in an electrochemical reaction), which powers an electric motor.
  • Since they’re powered entirely by electricity, fuel cell vehicles are considered electric vehicles (“EVs”)—but unlike other EVs, their range and re-fueling processes are comparable to conventional cars and trucks.
  • Fuel cells are a bit like a cross between an internal-combustion engine and battery power.
  • Like an internal-combustion engine, they make power by using fuel from a tank (though the fuel is pressurized hydrogen gas rather than gasoline or diesel). But, unlike an engine, a fuel cell doesn’t burn the hydrogen.
  • Instead, it’s fused chemically with oxygen from the air to make water. In the process, which resembles what happens in a battery, electricity is released and this is used to power an electric motor (or motors) that can drive a vehicle.

– explainthatstuff.com, ucsusa.org

 

Other Information About Electric Vehicles

  • There are two basic types of EVs: all-electric vehicles (AEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs).
  • AEVs include Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs) and Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles (FCEVs).
  • Plug-in electric vehicles derive all or part of their power from electricity supplied by the electric grid. They include AEVs and PHEVs.
    • AEVs (all-electric vehicles) are powered by one or more electric motors. They receive electricity by plugging into the grid and store it in batteries. They consume no petroleum-based fuel and produce no tailpipe emissions. AEVs include Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs) and Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles (FCEVs).
    • PHEVs (plug-in hybrid electric vehicles) use batteries to power an electric motor, plug into the electric grid to charge, and use a petroleum-based or alternative fuel to power the internal combustion engine. Some types of PHEVs are also called extended-range electric vehicles (EREVs).
  • Drivers can plug electric vehicles in and charge from an off-board electric power source. This distinguishes them from hybrid electric vehicles, which supplement an internal combustion engine with battery power but cannot be plugged in.
  • In addition to charging from the electrical grid, both types are charged in part by regenerative braking, which generates electricity from some of the energy normally lost when braking. Which type of vehicle will fit your lifestyle depends on your needs and driving habits.
  • All-electric vehicles (AEVs) run only on electricity. Most have all-electric ranges of 80 to 100 miles, while a few luxury models have ranges up to 250 miles.  When the battery is depleted, it can take from 30 minutes (with fast charging) up to nearly a full day (with Level 1 charging) to recharge it, depending on the type of charger and battery.
  • If this range is not sufficient, a plug-in electric vehicle (PHEV) may be a better choice. PHEVs run on electricity for shorter ranges (6 to 40 miles), then switch over to an internal combustion engine running on gasoline when the battery is depleted. The flexibility of PHEVs allows drivers to use electricity as often as possible while also being able to fuel up with gasoline if needed. Powering the vehicle with electricity from the grid reduces fuel costs, cuts petroleum consumption, and reduces tailpipe emissions compared with conventional vehicles. When driving distances are longer than the all-electric range, PHEVs act like hybrid electric vehicles, consuming less fuel and producing fewer emissions than similar conventional vehicles. Depending on the model, the internal combustion engine may also power the vehicle at other times, such as during rapid acceleration or when using heating or air conditioning. PHEVs could also use hydrogen in a fuel cell, biofuels, or other alternative fuels as a back-up instead of gasoline.

– energy.gov

 

Sources

1. https://www.ergon.com.au/network/smarter-energy/electric-vehicles/types-of-electric-vehicles

2. https://www.energy.gov/eere/electricvehicles/electric-vehicle-basics

3. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_vehicle

4. https://www.ucsusa.org/clean-vehicles/electric-vehicles/how-do-hydrogen-fuel-cells-work#.W-7QmJMzbR0

5. https://www.ucsusa.org/clean-vehicles/electric-vehicles/what-are-electric-cars#.W-7QzZMzbR0

6. https://www.ucsusa.org/clean-vehicles/electric-vehicles#.W-7QupMzbR0

7. https://www.explainthatstuff.com/fuelcells.html

Hydrogen Fuel Cell Cars Pros And Cons Now & In The Future

Hydrogen Fuel Cell Cars Pros And Cons Now & In The Future

There are a few different alternative fuel type vehicles to conventional internal combustion vehicles.

One of those is the hydrogen fuel cell vehicle.

Below we’ve put together a Hydrogen Fuel Cell Cars Pros And Cons guide.

 

Summary – Hydrogen Fuel Cell Car Pros & Cons

Pros

  • Hydrogen fuel is eco friendly
  • HVs are fuel efficient
  • Less maintenance
  • Good driving experience
  • Longer driving range and driving distance than EVs
  • Re-fuelling HVs is relatively quick
  • There’s an increasing number of stations being built over time
  • Hydrogen is abundant
  • Hydrogen can be renewable
  • Hydrogen can help build economic independence of some countries

 

Cons

  • Hydrogen fuel right now is not renewable
  • Right now, hydrogen fuel is not 100% eco friendly
  • Wheel to wheel eco advantage of HVs isn’t 100% certain
  • The amount of hydrogen fill up stations is currently limited
  • Hydrogen fill up stations are expensive to build and set up
  • Hydrogen is the most expensive fuel right now
  • Cost of cars and materials is expensive comparatively to other vehicle types
  • First buyers of HVs may lose out
  • There are some potential risks in safety with hydrogen fuel
  • Hydrogen storage can be complex and challenging
  • HVs aren’t good in all conditions and climates
  • There’s currently limited HV models and choice
  • Supply, infrastructure and technology is still years away from being perfect

 

*Note – these are very general pros and cons of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles. Each brand and model of hydrogen fuel cell vehicle is obviously going to offer it’s own pros and cons, and each driver is going to have different requirements.

This is only going to change as technology changes and society changes.

Different countries and cities also have different policies and regulations in places which may change the pros and cons of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles in different places. So, pros and cons can be vehicle, driver and location specific.

 

What Is A Hydrogen Fuel Cell Car/Vehicle?

In general, a hydrogen fuel cell car has a hydrogen tank (the hydrogen is extracted from another resource before it goes into the tank – usually from methane or natural gas).

The tank feeds a fuel cell, where the hydrogen and oxygen undergo an electrochemical reaction to produce electricity to power an electric motor.

The by product of this reaction is water and heat.

So, hydrogen fuel cells combine elements of conventional petrol cars (with the tank), and electric cars (with the electric energy and electric motor) – but a fuel cell vehicle is it’s own type of vehicle…it is not seen as either an electric car or a conventional car.

 

  • Hydrogen powered cars, are sometimes referred to as a Fuel Cell Vehicle (FCV) or Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle (FCEV)
  • Hydrogen fuel-cell cars are those vehicles that uses the natural element of hydrogen gas (Symbol: H) as their main fuel source.
  • The main component of a hydrogen powered car is its fuel cell.
  • Simply put, fuel cells convert stored hydrogen-gas into electricity, which powers an electric motor to propel the vehicle with virtually no tailpipe emissions.

– automotivetechnologies.com

 

  • HFCEV vehicles do carry pressurised hydrogen gas, but the fuel cells do not burn the hydrogen (compared to gasoline cars where the fuel is burned). Instead, the energy comes from an electrochemical reaction.
  • Therefore, HRCEVs are electric vehicles technically – but they differ from a electric battery vehicle
  • In a hydrogen vehicle, hydrogen combines with oxygen from the air in the fuel cell, and energy is formed in this process that’s used to power a motor. The only by-products from this reaction are heat and water
  • Hydrogen doesn’t exist by itself – You can’t simply pump it out of the ground
  • Before hydrogen can be used in a fuel cell, it needs to be extracted, either from water, through electrolysis, or by separating the hydrogen from the carbon in fossil fuels.
  • Examples of HFCEV’s (hydrogen fuel cell vehicles) on the road right now are the the Toyota Mirai, Honda Clarity and Hyundai ix35

– ams-composites.com

 

Read more about how a hydrogen fuel cell vehicle electrochemical reaction powers an electric motor at https://www.popularmechanics.com/cars/hybrid-electric/a22688627/hydrogen-fuel-cell-cars/

 

Hydrogen Fuel Cell Cars Pros

  • Hydrogen Fuel Is Environmentally Friendly – The only byproduct created from hydrogen cars is heat and water (i.e. steam/water vapor).
  • HVs Are Fuel Efficient (more than an electric vehicles and about the same as a gasoline car) – Overall fuel economy for hydrogen fuel cell powered vehicles is the equivalent of about twice that of gasoline vehicles. They convert up to 75 percent of the fuel into usable energy and can drive distances of up to 300 miles (480 kilometers) on a single tank. Fuel cell vehicles are often equipped with regenerative brakes, which also contribute to their increased efficiency.
  • Less Maintenance – Lesser internal moving parts (when compared to combustion engines) means lower maintenance related costs. They are also frequently lighter in weight (when compared to electric vehicles) for less wear and tear.
  • Good Driving Experience – Hydrogen powered vehicles are also quieter and smoother
  • Longer Driving Range/Distance Than Electric Vehicles – Since hydrogen powered vehicles are able to densely pack their energy storage, this translates into longer distances travelled before requiring a fill up. While most fully electric vehicles can travel between 100-200 miles on a single charge, hydrogen vehicles can travel into the 300 mile or around 480 kilometer range on a single fill up.
  • Refuelling Hydrogen Cars Is Relatively Quick (quicker than electric cars) – amount of time it takes to pump hydrogen into your tank is quite reasonable. Where charging a fully electric vehicle may take several hours, filling up a hydrogen car can refill in only a few minutes, with enough fuel to travel several hundred miles.
  • There’s More Stations Being Built Over Time – government initiatives and auto manufacturers are investing to make refuelling stations commonplace.
  • Hydrogen Is Abundant – Hydrogen is the most abundant element on planet earth
  • Hydrogen Can Be Renewable – Hydrogen can be derived from renewable energy (although it mostly isn’t at the moment). Although this is still in need of a lot of development, methods for the future include biological water splitting (using sunlight and microorganisms); pyrolysis or gasification of biomass resources; and solar thermal water splitting.
  • Can Help Build Economic Independence Of A Country – hydrogen is an alternative to building new power lines, while also reducing dependence on foreign oil.

– automotivetechnologies.com, greengarageblog.org, fuelcellcars.com

 

Hydrogen Fuel Cell Cars Cons

  • Hydrogen Fuel Right Now Is Not Renewable – the most common method is steam methane reforming from natural gas for regular hydrogen energy, but in general it’s coming from fossil fuels – which are finite. In order
  • Right Now, Hydrogen Fuel Is Not 100% Environmentally Friendly – because it’s coming from fossil fuel sources, even though the end product is water vapor.
  • Stanford University researchers in 2005 assessed the environmental effects of three different hydrogen sources: coal, natural gas, and water electrolysis powered by wind. They concluded that we would lower greenhouse gas emissions more by driving gasoline/electric hybrid cars than by driving fuel-cell cars run on hydrogen from coal. Hydrogen made using natural gas would fare a little bit better in terms of pollution output, while making it from wind power would be a slam-dunk for the environment.
  • Wheel To Wheel Environmental Advantage Of Hydrogen Vehicles Isn’t 100% Certain – Some say hydrogen vehicles sourced from natural gas are lower than battery electric vehicles, and less than half of equivalent gasoline vehicle emissions.
  • But, others say emission reductions aren’t that great due to GHG emissions from the natural gas reformation process. The entire process of electrolysis, transportation, pumping and fuel cell conversion leaves only about 20 to 25 percent of the original zero-carbon electricity to drive the motor. About 95 percent of the hydrogen used today is produced by a process called steam reforming, a process that releases greenhouse gasses. Making a kilogram of hydrogen from water through electrolysis is estimated to require 45 or more kilowatt-hours of electricity, depending on the technology. That’s enough electric to run an EV for a couple hundred miles.
  • The Amount Of Hydrogen Fill Up Stations Are Limited – compared to fill up stations for gasoline or diesel. There is currently lacking sufficient infrastructure to support hydrogen refuelling on a mass scale. According to U.S. Department of Energy, there are currently less than 50 publicly available hydrogen refuelling stations in the United States in 2018.
  • Hydrogen Stations Are Expensive – each station costs about $2 million to $3 million.
  • Hydrogen Is The Most Expensive Fuel Right Now – Hydrogen fuel at the first retail stations is currently going for about $6 a gallon. The carmakers and analysts believe the cost will come down to parity with gasoline in the next few years. If and when that happens, the efficiency of a fuel cell car will give drivers a cost advantage. But in the meantime, hydrogen is the most expensive automotive fuel on the market.
  • Cost Of Cars & Materials Is Expensive Comparatively – platinum is one of the most commonly used catalysts for fuel cells. At almost $1,000 an ounce, platinum can be a very expensive commodity. This increased production material cost, along with other new technologies related to hydrogen powered vehicles, are often folded into the purchase price of the vehicle.
  • You’re generally paying more for a hydrogen vehicle at the moment compared to a gasoline or electric vehicle to either buy or lease.
  • First Buyers May Lose Out – Hydrogen vehicle technology could change a lot of the next 10-20 years as the vehicles are developed. First buyers may face drastically re-duced re-sale prices of their cars, and will rely on companies to keep their models up to to date with new technology.
  • Potentially Dangerous – Storing pressurised hydrogen onboard your vehicle can pose unique dangers. One of the main concerns is that Hydrogen flames are nearly invisible. In the event of a collision, this would be of great concern to first responders attempting to rescue passengers.
  • Hydrogen Storage Can Be Complex & Challenging – Storing hydrogen is a challenge because it requires high pressures, low temperatures, or chemical processes to be stored compactly. For consumer passenger cars, overcoming this challenge is a bit difficult because they often have limited size and weight capacity for fuel storage.
  • Hydrogen Cars Aren’t Good In All Conditions & Climates – For proper performance, hydrogen-powered cars have some temperature parameters. In places where the temperature goes below the freezing point, hydrogen powered cars run the possibility of the water in the fuel cells freezing. In places with high temperatures, fuel cell components run the risk of overheating.
  • Limited Vehicle Choice – there are not many hydrogen vehicle brands and models to choose from right now.
  • Supply, Infrastructure and Technology Perfection & Development Is Still Years Away – it’s going to take many years in order to perfect these cells’ conversion solutions, since developing newer fuel cell technologies are still in the transition period. It will also take years to increase supply and infrastructure needs.

– automotivetechnologies.com, fuelcellcars.com, greengarageblog.org, thoughtco.com

 

Other Notes On Hydrogen Fuel Cell Cars 

  • Electric vehicles (using batteries with stored electricity instead of hydrogen fuel cells to power an electric motor) probably have more popularity and growth than hydrogen fuel cell cars forecasted for the future
  • Fuel cell vehicles such as hydrogen fuel cell vehicles have a future because they have potential to be fully environmentally friendly and close to zero emissions (when the hydrogen is derived from renewable green sources instead of fossil fuels), but they are years behind hybrid and battery electric infrastructure in terms of development

 

  • The problem with hydrogen fuel cell cars right now is that large scale manufacturing of hydrogen extracts the gas from methane, and it generates carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide.
  • Both of these problems have theoretic fixes, but they need a significant volume of potential customers to be implemented, along with government subsidies and support.
  • So, the future of hydrogen fuel cell cars depends on these subsidies and support by government, development by companies, and customers

– autoevolution.com, fuelcellcars.com

 

The two main hurdles for hydrogen fuel cell cars are:

  • the still high cost of producing fuel cells;
  • and, the lack of a hydrogen refueling network.

– thoughtco.com

 

  • Like the development of electric cars, hydrogen fuel cell vehicles will get more advanced over time, with the technology getting cheaper as the range from fill-ups increases.
  • This will make fuel cell cars more appealing to more people, and will help them become more widespread.

– rac.co.uk

 

Sources

1. https://www.autoevolution.com/news/six-problems-with-electric-cars-that-nobody-talks-about-112221.html

2. http://www.automotivetechnologies.com/hydrogen-fuel-cell-cars

3. http://www.fuelcellcars.com/hydrogen-cars-pros-and-cons/

4. https://greengarageblog.org/26-significant-pros-and-cons-of-hydrogen-fuel-cells

5. https://ams-composites.com/the-pros-and-cons-of-hydrogen-fuel-cells/

6. https://www.thoughtco.com/is-hydrogen-the-fuel-of-the-future-1203801

7. https://www.rac.co.uk/drive/advice/buying-and-selling-guides/hydrogen-cars/

8. https://www.popularmechanics.com/cars/hybrid-electric/a22688627/hydrogen-fuel-cell-cars/

Pros & Cons Of Electric Cars Now & Into The Future

Pros & Cons Of Electric Cars Now & Into The Future

There’s been increasing attention on the use of electric cars, both now and into our future.

But, what exactly are the pros and cons of electric cars to be aware of?

In this guide, we’ve put together a list outlining these pros and cons.

 

Summary – Pros & Cons Of Electric Cars

Pros

  • Technology is progressing fast
  • Convenient, & easy to re-charge
  • Can be cheaper to re-charge vs refilling a gasoline car
  • Can be cheaper to maintain
  • Has fewer air contaminant and air pollution emissions than a gasoline car
  • Has fewer greenhouse emissions than a gasoline car
  • There’s quick charge technology available
  • Driving experience is usually good
  • Leasing rates can be competitive
  • Potential health benefits to driving them
  • There can be tax benefits and concessions depending on the car and country
  • Their safety is generally pretty good
  • Re-charging stations are slowly being built and growing in number
  • Some cities allow EVs to drive in the carpool lane
  • Prices of EVs are expected to become more competitive (as technology gets better and economy of scale is met)
  • There are better and more cost effective ways of re-using and recycling EV batteries being researched and tested
  • Companies are looking at ways of reclaiming metals from batteries

 

Cons

  • There is a limit on how far you can drive EVs currently
  • There aren’t a lot of recharging stations yet
  • Full charging takes a long time
  • Different cars might only accept specific plugs
  • Higher initial retail cost compared to conventional cars
  • Fewer options right now than conventional engine cars
  • Only specific or limited tax incentives might be available
  • Re-sale value can drop quickly
  • Technology can get outdated or replaced quickly
  • Quiet operation can be dangerous to pedestrians
  • Material supply chain can be international and not local
  • Batteries currently rely on finite and rate metals
  • Battery re-use and recycling (plus dealing with battery waste) can be improved, and also become more cost effective
  • Fixing EVs can be inconvenient and costly
  • Sometimes a specialized EV mechanic might be needed to fix or modify an EV
  • EVs might not be as good in certain environments (very cold or hot climates, rural areas, dusty or hard wearing areas etc.)
  • Right now, EVs rely on customer investment and government subsidies and support
  • There are still some environmental concerns with the operation of EVs
  • EVs won’t solve some existing road problems
  • In some places, marketing and awareness of EVs is an issue

*Note – these are very general pros and cons of electric vehicles. Each brand and model of electric vehicle is obviously going to offer it’s own pros and cons, and each driver is going to have different requirements.

This is only going to change as technology changes and society changes.

Different countries and cities also have different policies and regulations in places which may change the pros and cons of EVs in different places. So, pros and cons can be car, driver and location specific.

 

What Are Electric Cars

When we talk about electric cars – we are generally talking about All-Electric Vehicles (AEV’s), also call Electric Battery Vehicles.

But, there are several different types of cars that use electricity for energy.

You can read about the different types of electric vehicles in this guide.

 

Pros Of Electric Cars

  • Technology Development Is Progressing Fast – batteries are getting better, driving distance is getting better, charging times are getting better, all quite quickly. EV’s in 10 years time will be far advanced on the ones you see now.
  • Convenient & Easy To Re-Charge – compared to gasoline based cars, you don’t have to go to a gas station to re-fuel. You can plug the car in at home and re-charge
  • Cheaper To Charge vs. Refilling a Gasoline Car – For the average electric vehicle owner, the cost of the electricity used to charge the vehicle is at least 25% less than the cost of fuel. Depending upon the owner’s geographic location, the type of electricity used, and if any home-based electricity is generated, the cost of fuel could be up to 33% less when compared to gasoline or diesel. EVgo, which is a leading supplier of charging stations for electric cars, currently offers a $0.20 to $0.35 per minute charging rate with a 45-minute session length.
  • Americans pay an average of 15 cents per mile driving gas-powered cars, which really doesn’t seem like much — until you compare it to the fact that many EVs run at one-third of that cost, given that electricity is significantly less expensive than gasoline. And since you’ll likely charge your electric car in your garage most of the time, installing solar panels on your home can save you even more money on powering both your residence and your EV.
  • Can Be Cheaper To Maintain – as most electric vehicles don’t require an exhaust system or oil changes.
  • The brakes on an EV also typically don’t wear as quickly as those on a conventional car, which means even more savings for you.
  • Has Fewer Emissions Than A Gasoline Car – there are emissions obviously when making the car and the battery, and when charging the car (with the fuel used for the electricity). But, overall, electric cars produce fewer emissions than a gasoline car that emits while it’s running via the exhaust. An electric car run on renewable energy would produce almost no emissions
  • There’s Quick Charge Technology Available – via direct current quick chargers. These chargers can add about 50 miles to the range of any electric vehicle in under 30 minutes. In 2018, a company called Electrify America announced that it was installing a number of these fast-charge stations at 100 Walmart stores in the United States. These stations would offer 20 miles of range per minute of charging.
  • Driving Experience Is Usually Good – operation/driving is usually very quiet compared to a combustion gasoline car engine, and there’s usually smoothness between changing gears
  • Leasing Rates Can Be Competitive – For households with a good credit score, usually 700 or higher, then a lease rate may be as low as $199 per month in some geographic regions.
  • Potential Health Benefits – About half of the U.S. population has experienced an adverse health event because of their exposure to traffic noise. Issues range from hearing loss to heart disease. The interior of a fuel-based vehicle driving at highway speeds is about 70 decibels. In an electric vehicle, the interior is often below 40 decibels at the same speed. That noise reduction produces a potential health benefit for everyone around the vehicle.
  • There Can Be Tax Benefits Depending On The Car & Country – The United States offers a federal tax credit of up to $7,500 per new electric vehicle purchased for use in the country. The size of the credit is dependent upon the battery capacity of the vehicle and its overall size. It may be a limited-time tax credit, as only 200,000 qualified cars from each manufacturer are eligible for the incentive.
  • Safety Is Good – Unlike vehicles using combustion, it is almost impossible for an electric car to explode upon impact. The heavy battery packs for the vehicle lower the center of gravity for the car, which makes it less likely for it to roll over as well. Electric cars also have modern safety systems similar to fuel-based vehicles, helping all models exceed the current safety standards.
  • Recharging Stations Are Slowly Being Built & Growing In Number – There are refueling stations being added across different countries to support the growing fleet of electric cars.
  • Some Places Allow You To Drive In The Carpool Lane – Driving an EV means you have the privilege of using the HOV lane (aka the “carpool” lane) any time of day in some areas, which is obviously convenient and saves time.
  • Prices Of EVs Are Expected To Become More Competitive – Prices should be on par with conventional cars by 2025.
  • Companies Are Looking At Ways To Re-Use Batteries Instead Of Recycling Them – car batteries can still have up to 70% of their capacity when they stop being good enough to power electric vehicles, making them perfect – when broken down, tested and re-packaged – for functions such as home energy storage.
  • Companies Are Looking At Ways To Reclaim Metals From Batteries – companies are looking at new recycling technology using a chemical process to retrieve all of the important metals from batteries

– vittana.org, earth911.com, theconversation.com, theguardian.com

 

Cons Of Electric Cars

  • Currently Limited In How Far You Can Drive Them – you might get 300 miles on one full charge, depending on the model. But, some vehicles have a range of just 80-100 miles.
  • There Aren’t A lot Of Recharging Stations Yet – most stations are centralized in urban areas, so there is still limited access in outer areas, and even in specific countries.
  • Full Charging Takes A Long Time – For every hour of charging time that the average electric vehicle receives, it adds about 25 miles to its overall range – assuming that the power is coming from a 240v source. Compare that to a fuel-based vehicle that can have a range of up to 600 miles with a refill that only takes a few minutes.
  • While most electric car engines take about four hours to reach a full charge, some take a whopping 15 to 20 hours
  • Different Cars Can Take Different Charging Plugs – Every electric vehicle comes with a charging mechanism to allow its owner to refill its “tank” when the batteries are running low. When using a DC fast charger, not every connection type is fully compatible with modern charging rates. The CHAdeMO connections, for example, provide just 50kw of energy on a fast charger producing 350kw, which means you’d receive about 3 miles of additional range for every minute of charging.
  • Higher Initial Retail Cost – The average cost of an electric car in the United States fits somewhere between $30,000 to $40,000. When looking at the size of the average electric vehicle, they are comparable to the small or mid-size market for fuel-based vehicles. That means the cost of an electric car may be double that of a fuel-based vehicle in the same category. Even if tax incentives are available, the electric car requires a higher capital cost that may be difficult to recover through lower maintenance and fuel costs.
  • The more affordable electric car models start in the $30,000 to $40,000 range, while luxury models creep into the $80,000s and upward. Until technology advances and becomes less expensive to produce, consumers can expect to pay between $10,000 and $50,000 more for an EV.
  • Fewer Options Than Combustion Engine Cars – Although there are 40+ electric vehicle options available on the market today, almost all vehicles that qualify as an electric car are either a pure compact or a mid-size sedan. There are innovations happening within the industry, with minivans, sports cars, and SUVs slowly being added to the ranks of offerings. When compared to the variety of options available in the fuel-based vehicle classes, however, the electric cars still have a long way to catch up.
  • Only Specific Tax Incentives Might Be Available – Some geographic regions may offer electric car incentives at the state, country, or community level. Since 2010, however, the purchase of an electric car creates a credit that can be applied toward the alternative minimum tax, or AMT, only. If you are not required to pay the AMT, then you would not gain a financial advantage with the offered tax credits that are currently in place. Before finalizing your purchase, be sure to review all rules and regulations in your area governing your purchase to determine option availability.
  • Also speak to a qualified tax expert or accountant to know the rules around EV tax concessions in your area.
  • Re-Sale Value Can Depreciate Quickly, & Technology Gets Outdated Quickly – EV’s from 2018 are going to be far inferior to those available in 2028. If you buy an EV now, not only do you risk having a poor re-sale value, but you also rely on the manufacturer to support the technology your car currently uses into the future.
  • Can Potentially Be Dangerous To Pedestrians – this may sound strange, but some EV’s are so quiet, that in urban areas, pedestrians and children may not be able to hear them coming or look to see them coming if they can’t hear them.
  • EV Material Supply Chain Is International – as opposed to domestic for a lot of combustion engine cars
  • EV Batteries Currently Rely On Finite & Rare Metals – such as lithium, dysprosium, lanthanum, neodymium, and praseodymium. This may present a supply problem down the road, it pushes prices up, and there are environmental and human rights issues raised on how these metals are mined in different parts of the world.
  • Cobalt, a key component of the lithium-ion batteries in electric cars, is linked to reports of child labour. The nickel used in those same batteries is toxic to extract from the ground. And there are environmental concerns and land use conflicts connected with lithium mining in countries like Tibet and Bolivia.
  • Certification schemes, such as the one proposed in Sweden, could help deliver low-impact battery value chains and avoid conflict minerals and human rights violations in the industry.
  • Battery Recycling Can Still Be Improved – the scale/capacity at which batteries from old EV’s can be recycled, and recycling batteries properly to minimise waste and impact on the environment still needs to be improved.
  • Lithium batteries carry a risk of giving off toxic gases if damaged, but core ingredients such as lithium and cobalt are finite and extraction can lead to water pollution and depletion among other environmental consequences.
  • Improvements in recycling, innovation, and the greening of battery factories can go a long way towards reducing the impacts of battery production.
  • The end goal would be closed loop recycling, and where most materials can be reclaimed
  • It would also help if all car batteries were standardised and designed for recycling – to help with designing and making recycling plants and factories
  • Battery Recycling Currently Isn’t Economically Viable – the cost of fully recycling a battery is falling toward €1 per kilo, but the value of the raw materials that can be reclaimed is only a third of that.
  • Fixing EV Vehicles Can Be Inconvenient & Costly – most EVs get sent off to the dealer to get fixed, because a local mechanic doesn’t have the tools or knowledge to fix an EV system.
  • EV Vehicles & Hydrogen Vehicles Not As Good In Certain Environments – such as rural areas and hot climates.
  • EV Vehicles For Now Rely On Customer Support & Government Subsidies & Support – to advance, development progress the technology and quality of EV available.
  • There Are Still Some Environmental Concerns With The Operation Of EV’s – there is concern about fine particle emissions. Electric cars are often heavier than conventional cars, and heavier vehicles are often accompanied by higher levels of non-exhaust emissions. The large torque of electric vehicles further adds to the fine dust problem, as it causes greater tyre wear and dispersion of dust particles.
  • EV’s Won’t Solve Some Existing Road Problems – unlikely to solve urban mobility and infrastructure-related problems such as traffic congestion. Redesigning cities, encouraging biking, and encouraging more walking may be required to solve urban and CBD mobility and infrastructure and road issues.
  • In Some Markets, Marketing & Awareness Of EVs Is An Issue – education, more marketing and awareness is required to get buyers involved in understanding what is available and what EVs offer.

– vittana.org, earth911.com, autoevolution.com, theconversation.com, businessinsider.com, theguardian.com

 

Other Notes On Electric Cars

  • Electric cars are definitely progressing with their technology and what they allow drivers to do
  • There’s still a lot of potential for growth, and there’s a lot of incentive to develop them further as they could be one of the biggest things that help address climate change (as emissions from transport is a big issue)
  • Powering electric cars with renewable green energy in the future would be a big goal
  • Improving the driving experience and features such as driving distance and charging time of EV cars would also be a goal to make them more competitive with combustion engine cars
  • The US, China, Europe (including Scandinavia) and Japan are all increasing their EV purchase rates

 

  • In 2017, over 1 million electric cars were sold in 2017 – a new record – with more than half of global sales in China. The total number of electric cars on the road surpassed 3 million worldwide, an expansion of over 50% from 2016.
  • China, and the US have the most EV’s in circulation
  • Norway, Iceland & Sweden have the highest % of EV market share
  • EV batteries are becoming more affordable due to increased production and investment
  • The number of electric cars on the road could reach 125 million by 2030, based on the policies already in place by governments around the world, or 220 million in 2030 with more ambitious policies

– iea.org

 

  • [a recent report forecasts] sales of electric vehicles (EVs) increasing from a record 1.1 million worldwide in 2017, to 11 million in 2025 and then surging to 30 million in 2030 as they become cheaper to make than internal combustion engine (ICE) cars. China will lead this transition, with sales there accounting for almost 50% of the global EV market in 2025.
  • By 204055% of all new car sales and 33% of the global fleet will be electric.
  • Displacement of transport fuel – Electrified buses and cars will displace a combined 7.3 million barrels per day of transportation fuel in 2040.

– about.bnef.com

 

  • By 2030, about 1 in 5 new vehicle sales could involve an electric car in America.

– vittana.org

 

Sources

1. https://vittana.org/15-electric-cars-pros-and-cons

2. https://earth911.com/eco-tech/pros-cons-electric-vehicles/

3. https://www.plugincars.com/electric-cars-pros-and-cons-128637.html

4. https://plugin-magazine.com/guides/owning-an-electric-car-pros-and-cons/

5. https://www.theweek.co.uk/94165/the-pros-and-cons-of-electric-cars

6. https://roadloans.com/blog/pros-and-cons-of-electric-cars

7. https://www.iea.org/gevo2018/

8. https://about.bnef.com/electric-vehicle-outlook/

9. https://www.autoevolution.com/news/six-problems-with-electric-cars-that-nobody-talks-about-112221.html

10. https://theconversation.com/not-so-fast-why-the-electric-vehicle-revolution-will-bring-problems-of-its-own-94980

11. https://www.businessinsider.com/electric-cars-trouble-consumers-unaware-2018-2/?r=AU&IR=T

12. https://www.theguardian.com/sustainable-business/2017/aug/10/electric-cars-big-battery-waste-problem-lithium-recycling

What Uses The Most Electricity/Power In Your Home

What Uses The Most Electricity/Power In Your Home

Knowing what uses the most electricity in your home is good for a few reasons.

Firstly, you can get an idea of where you are paying for power bills, and secondly, you can see where you might be having a bigger environmental impact.

In this quick guide, we look at the common appliances that uses electricity, as well as other power using activities.

 

Summary – What Uses The Most Electricity In Your Home

  • Space heating and cooling usually uses the most electricity by a significant margin, followed appliances and then water heating. Lighting usually doesn’t make up a large % of overall electricity usage in homes
  • Appliances that use a lot of electricity tend to be dryers, fridge/freezers, electric hobs, ovens and large TVs
  • Some sources suggest that around 35% of the total power we use is wasted in our homes

 

What Uses The Most Electricity/Power In Your Home

  • Cooling & Heating – 47%
  • Water Heater – 14%
  • Washer & Dryer – 13%
  • Lighting (depending on the type of bulb used) – 12%
  • Refrigerator – 4%
  • Electric Oven – 3 to 4%
  • TV, & Cable Boxes – 3%
  • Dishwasher – 2%
  • Computer or Laptop – 1%

– visualcapitalist.com

 

  1. Air conditioning and heating: 46 percent
  2. Water heating: 14 percent
  3. Appliances (fridge, dishwasher, electric stove and oven): 13 percent
  4. Lighting: 9 percent
  5. TV and Media Equipment: 4 percent
  6. Other (such as the washer and dryer) – 14%

– directenergy.com

 

In 2009 in the US, energy in the home was used on:

  • Space heating (42%),
  • Electronics, lighting and other appliances (30%),
  • Water heating (18%),
  • Air conditioning (6%),
  • and Refrigeration (5%).

– eia.gov

 

The four main energy culprits in homes are:

  1. Heating and Cooling – 40%
  2. Appliances (refrigerator, washer, dryer, dishwasher and the TV) – 33%
  3. Water Heating – 20%
  4. Lighting – 6%

– energymadeeasy.gov.au

 

Top Appliances Or Electronics That Use Power Even When You’re Not Using Them

  1. Set Top Box
  2. Computer
  3. Printers
  4. DVD/VCR
  5. Central Heating Furnace
  6. Routers & Modems
  7. Phones
  8. Gaming Consoles
  9. Televisions
  10. Microwaves

– visualcapitalist.com

 

Tips For Saving Power & Money On Appliances & Electronics When Not Using Them

  • Pull out the plug
  • Attach to a power strip and turn off the power strip when not in use
  • Buy products with an efficient power/energy rating
  • Buy products that have low standby power usage

– visualcapitalist.com

 

Air conditioning and heating

  • Use ceiling fans
  • Turn the thermostat up to 78 F
  • Get an AC tuneup
  • Draw your curtains during warmer hours of the day
  • Replace your air filters
  • Don’t block inside vents or outside units
  • Dust and vacuum to prevent clogs

Water heating

  • Set your water heater’s temperature to 120 F or lower
  • Wrap an older water heater with an insulation jacket
  • Insulate the hot water pipes
  • Turn down your water heater when you go on vacation

Appliances (fridge, dishwasher, electric stove and oven)

  • Fridge
  • Don’t overload your refrigerator
  • Keep most-used products in accessible areas
  • Arrange its contents for optimal efficiency
  • Set your fridge to the manufacturer’s recommended temperature
  • Regularly clean and maintain its parts
  • Electric oven and stove
  • Opt to use a toaster oven, microwave, slow cooker or other smaller appliance
  • Use the oven and stove during cooler hours of the day
  • Don’t preheat unless it’s necessary for the dish to cook properly
  • Turn off the burners a few minutes before the dish is done and let the residual heat do the rest
  • Dishwasher
  • Wash full loads
  • Turn off heated dry
  • Wash during cooler hours of the day
  • Pre-rinse heavily soiled dishes to prevent the need for a second cycle

Lighting

  • Turn off lights when you leave a room
  • Use energy-efficient lightbulbs
  • Use natural light

TV and Media Equipment

  • Use a surge protector
  • Shop for EnergyStar electronics

Other

  • Washer and dryer
  • Wash full loads
  • Wash with cold water
  • Avoid overfilling the machines
  • Use drying racks when possible
  • Clear lint after each load

– directenergy.com

 

1. Heating and Cooling

  • heat only the rooms that are being used
  • close curtains and blinds—on hot sunny days this simple step can keep rooms cooler, while on colder days closed curtains and blinds at night can protect against drafts, and
  • choose fans for cooling—they are a cheaper cooling option and have a low greenhouse impact.

2. Appliances

  • turn off appliances at the power outlet—many appliances continue to draw power even when you’re not using them, adding unnecessarily to electricity costs, and
  • check appliance energy ratings—careful selection of appliances can save money in the long run.

3. Water Heating

  • lower the water heater thermostat to between 60°C and 65°C
  • install a water efficient shower head, and
  • use cold water for the washing machine.

4. Lighting

  • turn off lights when not using them
  • use energy efficient light bulbs, fixtures and systems

– energymadeeasy.gov.au

 

What Is The Average Power Spend Per Year In American Household?

  • In 2016, it was around $1,368.36 per year.

– visualcapitalist.com

 

Average Power Cost Per Year Of Different Appliances & Electronics In Your Home

  • Heating – $662 (per year)
  • Cooling – $394
  • Water Heater – $317
  • Washer & Dryer – $143
  • Refrigerator – $95
  • Electric Oven (based on 1 hour of 350 degree usage daily) – $90
  • TV, DVD, Cable Box – $57
  • Dishwasher – $49
  • Lighting – $28
  • Computer – $28

– visualcapitalist.com

 

How Much Power Does The Average Household Waste?

  • Around 35% of the total power consumed is wasted, while only 65% is actually used.

– visualcapitalist.com

 

Sources

1. http://www.visualcapitalist.com/what-uses-the-most-energy-home/

2. https://www.energymadeeasy.gov.au/hot-topics/energy-around-house

3. https://www.directenergy.com/learning-center/energy-efficiency/what-uses-most-electricity-in-my-home

4. https://www.eia.gov/energyexplained/index.php?page=us_energy_homes

Which Sectors & Industries Use The Most Energy & Electricity

Which Sectors & Industries Use The Most Energy & Electricity

Knowing who or what uses the most energy and electricity in society is important for a number of reasons.

It allows you to trace back to the source of that energy, and what impact that energy generation is having.

All this information can help align current economic and social conditions, with future plans and policies for change.

In this guide, we outline the most energy hungry sectors and industries.

 

Summary – Sectors & Industries Use The Most Energy & Electricity

  • In 2012, the industrial sector by far used the most energy globally at 54%. This was followed by transportation, residential and then commercial
  • China is the world’s biggest user and producer of energy. Coal is China’s biggest source of energy at the moment. In the industrial sector in China, six industries – electricity generation, steel, non-ferrous metals, construction materials, oil processing and chemicals – account for nearly 70% of energy use.
  • The US is the second biggest user and producer of energy right now. The US in 2017 had an energy split of industrial – 32%, transportation – 29%, residential – 20%, and commercial – 18%.

 

Which Sectors & Industries Use The Most Energy & Electricity Worldwide

The World energy use (end use of energy) by sector, in 2012, was:

Sector1015Btu (British Thermal Units)Petawatt-hoursPercentage
Residential53.015.513
Commercial29.38.67
Industrial222.365.154
Transportation104.230.526
Total*408.9119.8100

The sectors can be described as or might include:

  • Residential (heating, lighting, and appliances)
  • Commercial (lighting, heating and cooling of commercial buildings, and provision of water and sewer services)
  • Industrial users (agriculture, mining, manufacturing, and construction)
  • Transportation (passenger, freight, and pipeline)

– wikipedia.org

 

The EIA has some good data and on US and International energy consumption at:

  • https://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/ (then browse by sector in the US)
  • https://www.eia.gov/outlooks (forecasts)
  • There’s also an international section for other countries such as China, India, Russia etc.

 

Which Sectors & Industries Use The Most Energy & Electricity In China

  • In 2015, most of China’s energy and coal use came from the industrial sector, with 67.9 percent of the country’s energy use and 54.2 percent of its coal use due to manufacturing, agriculture, and construction.
  • An additional 41.8 percent of China’s coal consumption came from power production activities.

– chinapower.csis.org

 

  • In the industrial sector, six industries – electricity generation, steel, non-ferrous metals, construction materials, oil processing and chemicals – account for nearly 70% of energy use.
  • In the construction materials sector, China produced about 44% of the world’s cement in 2006. Cement production produces more carbon emissions than any other industrial process, accounting for around 4% of global carbon emissions.

– wikipedia.org

 

Which Sectors & Industries Use The Most Energy & Electricity In The United States

The total energy use in the US in 2017 was 97.7 quadrillion British Thermal Units.

The % of energy use by end use sectors in 2017 was:

  • Industrial – 32%
  • Transportation – 29%
  • Residential – 20%
  • Commercial – 18%

These sectors can be described to include:

  • The industrial sector includes facilities and equipment used for manufacturing, agriculture, mining, and construction.
  • The transportation sector includes vehicles that transport people or goods, such as cars, trucks, buses, motorcycles, trains, aircraft, boats, barges, and ships.
  • The residential sector includes homes and apartments.
  • The commercial sector includes offices, malls, stores, schools, hospitals, hotels, warehouses, restaurants, and places of worship and public assembly.
  • The electric power sector consumes primary energy to generate most of the electricity the other four sectors consume.

– eia.gov

 

Which Sectors & Industries Use The Most Energy & Electricity In The UK

In 2016, the UK consumed 140,668 ktoe of energy. Breakdown of energy consumption by general sectors was:

  • Transport – 40%
  • Domestic – 29%
  • Industry – 17%
  • Services – 14%

In Goods & Services, the energy consumption breakdown is:

  • 65% for commercial businesses, 29% for public administration, 6% for agriculture
  • 21% in the health sector, 18% in offices, 17% in retail, 13% in hospital, 11% in education, 9% in community, art and leisure, 9% in storage, 6% in agriculture, 3% in emergency services, 2% in military

In Manufacturing & Industrial, the energy consumption breakdown is:

  • 28% from other industries, 14.3% from chemicals, 12% from food, drink and tobacco, 10.4% from mineral products, 9.8% from paper, printing and publishing, 6% from vehicles, 4.5% from mechanical engineering, 3.9% from iron and steel, 3.4% from electrical engineering, 2.8% from textiles and clothing, 2.5% from construction, and 2.4% from non ferrous metals

In business, the energy consumption breakdown is:

  1. Private offices – 3,539 ktoe
  2. Chemical manufacturing –2,874 ktoe
  3. Hospitality – 2,458 ktoe
  4. Food products manufacturing – 2,242 ktoe
  5. Hospitals – 2,237 ktoe
  6. Non-metallic mineral manufacturing – 1,924 ktoe
  7. Basic metals manufacturing – 1,489 ktoe
  8. Rubber and plastic manufacturing – 1,442 ktoe
  9. Small shops – 1,376 ktoe
  10. Paper products manufacturing – 1,297 ktoe

– gazprom-energy.co.uk

*ktoe stands for Kilotonne of Oil Equivalent (a measurement unit of energy consumption)

 

Which Sectors & Industries Use The Most Energy & Electricity In Australia

In 2015-15, Australia’s energy consumption by industry was:

  • Electricity Supply – 1,755.7 PJ, or 28.5 % of total energy consumption
  • Transport – 1,642.8 PJ, or 27.1%
  • Manufacturing – 1,114.4 PJ, or 18.4%
  • Mining – 610.0 PJ, or 10.1%
  • Residential – 457.4 PJ, or 7.5%
  • Commercial – 321.5 PJ, or 5.6%
  • Agriculture – 110.3 PJ, or 1.8%
  • Construction – 23.4 PJ, or 0.4%
  • Other – 30.5 PJ, or 0.7%
  • Total – 6,065.9 PJ

*PJ stands for Petajoules. One PJ is 278 gigawatt hours, or about the equivalent energy used by 19,000 homes per year.

– energy.gov.au

 

Sources

1. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_energy_consumption

2. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Energy_policy_of_China

3. https://chinapower.csis.org/energy-footprint/

4. https://www.energy.gov.au/sites/g/files/net3411/f/energy-update-report-2017.pdf

5. https://www.gazprom-energy.co.uk/blog/which-businesses-use-the-most-energy/

6. https://www.eia.gov/outlooks

7. https://www.eia.gov/energyexplained/index.php?page=us_energy_use

A Breakdown Of Energy Use & Production In China Now & In The Future

A Breakdown Of Energy Use In China Now & In The Future

China is one of the primary energy consumers and producers in the world,

It’s important to know how much energy they produce and consumer, and where this energy comes from.

In this guide we do an overview of that, and look at where energy trends might be going in the future.

 

Summary – Energy Use & Production In China

  • China is the current global highest user and producer of energy
  • Most of China’s energy right now comes from coal (In 2016, coal made up 62 percent of China’s energy use)
  • Despite trying to use more natural gas, and investing in renewables, China is still fairly dependent on coal in the short to medium term for various reasons
  • In 2015, most of China’s energy and coal use came from the industrial sector, with 67.9 percent of the country’s energy use and 54.2 percent of its coal use due to manufacturing, agriculture, and construction.
  • An additional 41.8 percent of China’s coal consumption came from power production activities.
  • In the industrial sector, six industries – electricity generation, steel, non-ferrous metals, construction materials, oil processing and chemicals – account for nearly 70% of energy use.

 

Breakdown Of China’s Overall Energy Use, Production & Import

In 2010, China:

  • Had a population of 1,338 million
  • Had a primary energy consumption of 28,111 TWh
  • Had energy production of 25,690 TWh
  • Imported 3,905 TWh of energy
  • Had 3,938 TWh of electricity
  • Had 7,270 Mt of C02 emissions

– wikipedia.org

 

How Much Energy China Uses/Consumes

  • The total consumption of energy in China is 5,920.00 billion kWh of electric energy per year. Per capita this is an average of 4,270 kWh.

– worlddata.info

You can find a total overview of energy consumption at https://www.worlddata.info/asia/china/energy-consumption.php

 

  • In 2013, China’s total annual electricity output was 5.398 trillion kWh  and the annual consumption was 5.380 trillion kWh with an installed capacity of 1247 GW (all the largest in the world).

– wikipedia.org

 

Energy Use By Sector In China

  • In 2015, most of China’s energy and coal use came from the industrial sector, with 67.9 percent of the country’s energy use and 54.2 percent of its coal use due to manufacturing, agriculture, and construction.
  • An additional 41.8 percent of China’s coal consumption came from power production activities.

– chinapower.csis.org

 

  • In the industrial sector, six industries – electricity generation, steel, non-ferrous metals, construction materials, oil processing and chemicals – account for nearly 70% of energy use.
  • In the construction materials sector, China produced about 44% of the world’s cement in 2006. Cement production produces more carbon emissions than any other industrial process, accounting for around 4% of global carbon emissions.

– wikipedia.org

 

Breakdown Of Energy Consumption By Energy Sources In China

  • Over the last half century, China’s large manufacturing-based economy has primarily been fueled by coal. From 1990 to 2015, China increased its coal consumption from 1.05 billion tons to 3.97 billion tons. In 2016, coal made up 62 percent of China’s energy use. Since 2011, China has consumed more coal than the rest of the world combined.
  • In 2017, China consumed 240.4 billion-meter cubic meters of natural gas, making up 6.4 percent of China’s total energy consumption.

– chinapower.csis.org

 

In 2012:

  • Coal supplied the majority (nearly 66%) of China’s total energy consumption in 2012.
  • The second ­largest source was petroleum and other liquids, accounting for nearly 20% of the country’s total energy consumption.
  • Although China has made an effort to diversify its energy supplies, hydroelectric sources (8%), natural gas (5%), nuclear power (nearly 1%), and other renewables (more than 1%) accounted for relatively small shares of China’s energy consumption.

– energy.gov

 

  • Coal – Coal remains the foundation of the Chinese energy system, covering close to 70 percent of the country’s primary energy needs and representing 80 percent of the fuel used in electricity generation.
  • Renewables – Approximately 7% of China’s energy was from renewable sources in 2006

– wikipedia.org

 

How Much Energy China Produces

  • China had an energy production of 25,690 TWh in 2010.

– wikipedia.org

 

Energy Production & Supply By Energy Sources In China

  • Coal – China is the largest producer and consumer of coal in the world and accounts for about half of the world’s coal consumption. According to the World Energy Council, China held an estimated 126 billion short tons of proved recoverable coal reserves in 2011, the thirdlargest in the world behind the United States and Russia, and equivalent to about 13% of the world’s total coal reserves. Coal production rose 9% in 2013 from 2012 to nearly 4.4 billion short tons
  • Oil – In 2014, China produced nearly 4.6 million barrels per day (bbl/d) of petroleum and other liquids, of which 92% was crude oil and the remainder was non­refining liquids and refining gain. EIA forecasts China’s oil production will increase slightly to higher than 4.6 million bbl/d by the end of 2016. In the medium and long term, EIA predicts China’s oil production will grow incrementally to 5.1 million bbl/d by 2020, 5.5 million bbl/d by 2030, and 5.7 million bbl/d by 2040.
  • Natural Gas – Although natural gas production and use is rapidly increasing in China, the fuel comprised only 5% of the country’s total primary energy consumption in 2012. China held 164 trillion cubic feet (Tcf) of proved natural gas reserves in January 2015. The Chinese government anticipates boosting the share of natural gas as part of total energy consumption to at least 10% by 2020

– energy.gov

 

  • Roughly 72 percent of the electrical power generated in China in 2015 came from coal-powered plants
  • China’s electricity generated by wind power accounted for just 2.1 percent of its total consumption in 2012
  • As of July 2018, China operated 41 nuclear power reactors, which generated 38,419 (MW) of energy.
  • China’s electricity generated by wind power accounted for just 2.1 percent of its total consumption in 2012

– chinapower.csis.org

 

  • Coal – In 2009, China’s coal supply was 18,449 TWh which was 47% of the world coal supply. In 2015, China produced 3,527 Mt, Net imported 199 Mt, and had 3,726 Mt net coal available.
  • Oil/Petroleum – China’s oil supply was 4,855 TWh in 2009 which represented 10% of the world’s supply.
  • Natural Gas – China’s natural gas supply was 1,015 TWh in 2009 that was 3% of the world supply.

– wikipedia.org

 

China’s Installed Energy Capacity

In 2016, the installed capacity by technology of each energy source in China in Gigawatts was:

  • Coal – 945GW
  • Gas – 67GW
  • Oil – 9GW
  • Nuclear – 34GW
  • Hydro – 332GW
  • Bioenergy – 12GW
  • Wind – 149GW
  • Solar – 77GW

– iea.org

 

In 2040, the installed capacity by technology of each energy source in China in Gigawatts is forecast to be:

  • Coal – 1087GW
  • Gas – 219GW
  • Nuclear – 145GW
  • Hydro – 493GW
  • Bioenergy – 49GW
  • Wind – 593GW
  • Solar – 738GW
  • Oil – 0GW

– iea.org

 

How China Compares To The Rest Of The World In Energy Consumption & Production

Read a quick guide of which countries use and produce the most energy.

 

Recent Trends, & Where Energy Production & Consumption Is Heading In The Future For China

  • The Chinese government plans to cap coal use to 62% of total primary energy consumption by 2020 in an effort to reduce heavy air pollution that has afflicted certain areas of the country in recent years.
  • China’s National Energy Agency claims that coal use dropped to 64.2% of energy consumption in 2014.
  • The Chinese government set a target to raise non ­fossil fuel energy consumption to 15% of the energy mix by 2020 and to 20% by 2030 in an effort to ease the country’s dependence on coal.
  • In addition, China is currently increasing its use of natural gas to replace some coal and oil as a cleaner burning fossil fuel and plans to use natural gas for 10% of its energy consumption by 2020.
  • Even though absolute coal consumption is expected to increase over the long term as total energy consumption rises, higher energy efficiency and China’s goal to increase environmental sustainability are likely to lead to a decrease in coal’s share.

– energy.gov

 

  • China is increasingly looking toward securing its future energy needs with sustainable alternatives.
  • Over the last decade, China’s investment in renewable energy and natural gas has surged. In 2017, almost half of global renewable energy investment came from China, totaling $125.9 billion. This is more than double the $53.3 billion that China invested in renewables in 2013. China is becoming the largest market in the world for renewable energy. It is estimated that 1 in every 4 gigawatts of global renewable energy will be generated by China through 2040.

– chinapower.csis.org

 

China’s Electricity Generation Breakdown

  • In 2013, China’s total annual electricity output was 5.398 trillion kWh and the annual consumption was 5.380 trillion kWh with an installed capacity of 1247 GW (all the largest in the world).
  • Coal – In 2015, China generated 73% of its electricity from coal-fired power stations, which has been dropping from a peak of 81% in 2007.
  • Renewables – China is the world’s leading renewable energy producer, with an installed capacity of 152 GW. Approximately 7% of China’s energy was from renewable sources in 2006, a figure targeted to rise to 10% by 2010 and to 16% by 2020. The major renewable energy source in China is hydropower. Total hydro-electric output in China in 2009 was 615.64 TWh, constituting 16.6% of all electricity generated.
  • Nuclear Power – In 2012, China had 15 nuclear power units with a total electric capacity of 11 GW and total output of 54.8 billion kWh, accounting for 1.9% country’s total electricity output. This rose to 17 reactors in 2013. By 2016 the number of operating nuclear reactors was 32 with 22 under construction and other dozen to start construction this year. There are plans to increase nuclear power capacity and nuclear power percentage, bringing the total electricity output to 86 GW and 4% respectively by 2020. Plans are to increase this to 200 GWe by 2030, and 400 GWe by 2050. China has set an end-of-the-Century goal 1500GWs of nuclear energy, most of this from fast reactors.

– wikipedia.org/

 

You can read more about China’s electricity sector and breakdowns by electricity energy sources at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electricity_sector_in_China

 

Renewable Energy Production & Consumption In China

  • China is the world’s largest renewable energy producer. China is the largest producer of hydroelectricity, solar power and wind power in the world.

– wikipedia.org

 

  • Hydroelectric – Hydroelectric power has become China’s main source of renewable energy production. The controversial Three Gorges Dam, completed in 2012 at a cost of over $37 billion, is the largest hydroelectric dam in the world and boasts a generation capacity of 22,500 MW. The dam generates 60 percent more electricity than the second-largest hydropower dam, the Itaipu dam in Brazil and Paraguay.
  • Including the Three Gorges Dam, China has constructed 4 of the top 10 largest energy-producing hydroelectric dams in the world. From 2000 to 2015, China increased its hydroelectric energy-generation capacity by an impressive 408 percent. As a result of the Three Gorges Dam and other projects, China became the world leader in hydropower in 2014.
  • Solar – Over the past decade China has also emerged as a global leader in wind and solar photovoltaic (PV) energy. China’s electricity generated by wind power accounted for just 2.1 percent of its total consumption in 2012, compared to 3.7 in the United States and 9.4 percent in Germany. By 2015, China accounted for one-third of global wind-energy capacity. China’s wind power capacity in 2017 surged to 16,367 megawatts (MW), a 10.5 percent increase from the previous year.
  • China is now home to two-thirds of the world’s solar-production capacity.
  • How much the solar market in China can grow is in dispute due to an over-saturated domestic market, and the ongoing trade dispute between the US and China

– chinapower.csis.org

 

In 2012, China invested $65.1 billion USD in clean energy (20% more than in 2011), fully 30% of the total investment by the G-20, including 25% ($31.2 billion USD) of global solar energy investment, 37% percent ($27.2 billion USD) of global wind energy investment, and 47% ($6.3 billion USD) of global investment in “other renewable energy” (small hydro, geothermal, marine, and biomass); 23 GW of clean generation capacity was installed.

China is also the largest producer of wind turbines and solar panels. Approximately 7% of China’s energy was from renewable sources in 2006, a figure targeted to rise to 10% by 2010 and to 16% by 2020. The major renewable energy source in China is hydropower. Total hydro-electric output in China in 2009 was 615.64 TWh, constituting 16.6% of all electricity generated.

Although a majority of the renewable energy in China is from hydropower, other renewable energy sources are in rapid development:

  • Bioenergy – In 2006, 16 million tons of corn have been used to produce ethanol. However, because food prices in China rose sharply during 2007, China has decided to ban the further expansion of the corn ethanol industry. It has since restarted, but there are concerns it may cause environmental damage.
  • Solar Power – China has become the world’s largest consumer of solar energy. In 2007, 0.82 GW of Solar PV was produced, second only to Japan.
  • Wind Power – China’s total wind power capacity reached 2.67 gigawatts (GW) in 2006, 6.05 GW by 2007, 12.2 GW by 2008, 25 GW by 2009, and 44.7 GW by 2010, making China the world leader in installed wind power generation capacity.

– wikipedia.org

 

Sources

1. https://www.iea.org/weo/china/

2. https://china.lbl.gov/sites/default/files/misc/ced-9-2017-final.pdf

3. https://www.worlddata.info/asia/china/energy-consumption.php

4. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electricity_sector_in_China

5. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Energy_policy_of_China

6. https://www.energy.gov/sites/prod/files/2016/04/f30/China_International_Analysis_US.pdf

7. https://chinapower.csis.org/energy-footprint/

8. https://www.understandchinaenergy.org/

A Breakdown Of Energy Use & Production In The United States Now & In The Future

A Breakdown Of Energy Use In The United States Now & In The Future

The United States is one of the primary energy consumers and producers in the world,

It’s important to know how much energy they produce and consumer, and where this energy comes from.

In this guide we do an overview of that, and look at where energy trends might be going in the future.

 

Summary – Energy Use & Production In The United States

  • The US is currently the second biggest energy user and producer in the world (behind China)
  • Fossil fuels accounted for 77.6% of primary energy production in the US in 2017
  • In 2017, the energy split for the US for primary energy production was Natural gas—31.8%, Petroleum (crude oil and natural gas plant liquids)—28.0%, Coal—17.8%, Renewable energy—12.7%, and Nuclear electric power—9.6%.
  • The sectors that used the most energy in the US in 2017 were the electricity sector (38.1%), followed by transport, industrial, residential and commercial
  • The US has a far smaller reliance on coal than China currently does (who are at about 60 to 65% energy from coal)

 

Types Of Energy Sources

The United States uses and produces many different types and sources of energy, which can be grouped into general categories such as primary and secondary, renewable and nonrenewable, and fossil fuels.

Primary energy sources include fossil fuels (petroleum, natural gas, and coal), nuclear energy, and renewable sources of energy. Electricity is a secondary energy source that is generated (produced) from primary energy sources.

– eia.gov

 

How Energy Is Measured

Energy sources are measured in different physical units: liquid fuels in barrels or gallons, natural gas in cubic feet, coal in short tons, and electricity in kilowatts and kilowatt hours. In the United States, British thermal units (Btu), a measure of heat energy, is commonly used for comparing different types of energy to each other.

– eia.gov

 

How Much Energy The United States Uses/Consumes

In 2017, total U.S. primary energy consumption was equal to about 97.7 quadrillion (97,728,000,000,000,000) Btu.

– eia.gov

 

The total consumption of energy in the US is 3,911.00 billion kWh of electric energy per year. Per capita this is an average of 12,007 kWh.

– worlddata.info

You can find a total overview of energy consumption at https://www.worlddata.info/america/usa/energy-consumption.php

 

Energy Use By Sector In The United States

There are five major primary energy consuming sectors. Their shares of total primary energy consumption in 2017 were:

  • Electric power—38.1%
  • Transportation—28.8%
  • Industrial—22.4%
  • Residential—6.2%
  • Commercial—4.5%

(The electric power sector generates most of the electricity in the United States, and the other four sectors consume most of that electricity.)

– eia.gov

 

  • The industrial sector [32% of all energy consumption, including electricity] includes facilities and equipment used for manufacturing, agriculture, mining, and construction.
  • The transportation sector [29% of all energy consumption, including electricity] includes vehicles that transport people or goods, such as cars, trucks, buses, motorcycles, trains, aircraft, boats, barges, and ships.
  • The residential sector [21% of all energy consumption, including electricity] consists of homes and apartments.
  • The commercial sector [19% of all energy consumption, including electricity] includes offices, malls, stores, schools, hospitals, hotels, warehouses, restaurants, and places of worship and public assembly.
  • The electric power sector consumes primary energy to generate most of the electricity consumed by the other four sectors.”

– americangeosciences.org

 

You can see a breakdown of which sectors use what % of each energy source at https://www.e-education.psu.edu/egee102/node/1930

 

How Much Energy The United States Produces

In 2017, the amount of energy produced in the United States was equal to about 87.5 quadrillion Btu, and this was equal to about 89.6% of U.S. energy consumption. The difference between the amount of total primary energy consumption and total primary energy production was mainly the energy content of net imports of crude oil.

– eia.gov

 

Energy Production By Energy Sources In The United States

In 2012, an energy sources breakdown was:

  • Oil 35%
  • Natural gas 25%
  • Coal 20%
  • Nuclear 8%
  • Renewable Energy 9%

– infoplease.com

You can view a further breakdown at https://www.infoplease.com/science-health/energy/us-energy-consumption-energy-source-2002-2012

 

The pattern of fuel use varies widely by sector though. For example, petroleum provides about 92% of the energy used for transportation, but only 1% of the energy used to generate electricity.

– eia.gov

 

The three major fossil fuels—petroleum, natural gas, and coal—combined accounted for about 77.6% of the U.S. primary energy production in 2017:

  • Natural gas—31.8%
  • Petroleum (crude oil and natural gas plant liquids)—28.0%
  • Coal—17.8%
  • Renewable energy—12.7%
  • Nuclear electric power—9.6%

– eia.gov

 

How The United States Compares To The Rest Of The World In Energy Consumption & Production

Read a quick guide of which countries use and produce the most energy.

 

Recent Trends, & Where Energy Production & Consumption Is Heading In The Future For The United States

In general, up to 2017:

  • Coal use has been decreasing
  • Natural Gas use has been increasing
  • Crude oil was decreasing but has been increasing recently
  • Natural gas plant liquids (NGPL) have been increasing
  • Renewable energy sources have been increasing (solar, wind especially). You can view a usage of renewable energy graphs from 1990 to 2015 at https://www.worlddata.info/america/usa/energy-consumption.php

– eia.gov

 

You can see a graph and statistics on the US’s energy source history, current trends and future outlook at https://www.e-education.psu.edu/egee102/node/1930

 

You can read more about the US’s future for energy use and renewable energy use in these resources:

  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Renewable_energy_in_the_United_States
  • https://www.investopedia.com/articles/investing/102615/4-things-know-about-future-us-energy.asp
  • https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2017/04/why-renewable-energy-isnt-going-anywhere-in-the-united-states-despite-president-trumps-executive-order
  • https://www.climaterealityproject.org/blog/follow-leader-how-11-countries-are-shifting-renewable-energy

 

US Vehicle Fuel Consumption

You can view a history of the US’s vehicle fuel and oil consumption at https://www.e-education.psu.edu/egee102/node/1930

 

US Electricity Consumption

US electricity generation is expected to grow from 3.7 trillion kilowatthours in 2015 to 4558 kilowatthours in 2035.

– e-education.psu.edu

 

Sources

1. https://www.infoplease.com/science-health/energy/us-energy-sources-2006-2012

2. https://www.infoplease.com/science-health/energy/us-energy-consumption-energy-source-2002-2012

3. https://www.eia.gov/energyexplained/?page=us_energy_home

4. https://www.worlddata.info/america/usa/energy-consumption.php

5. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Energy_in_the_United_States

6. https://www.americangeosciences.org/critical-issues/faq/what-are-major-sources-and-users-energy-united-states

7. https://www.e-education.psu.edu/egee102/node/1930

8. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Renewable_energy_in_the_United_States

9. https://www.investopedia.com/articles/investing/102615/4-things-know-about-future-us-energy.asp

10. https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2017/04/why-renewable-energy-isnt-going-anywhere-in-the-united-states-despite-president-trumps-executive-order

11. https://www.climaterealityproject.org/blog/follow-leader-how-11-countries-are-shifting-renewable-energy

Which Countries Use & Produce The Most Energy

Which Countries Use & Produce The Most Energy

The energy sector is one of the most important sectors globally for a number of reasons.

It’s important to know which countries are using and producing the most energy, and how they are doing it. This gives us an idea of the impact they might be having on their own country and the world.

In this guide, we look at which countries use the most energy in total, per person, per year, and also which countries produce the most energy.

 

Summary – Countries That Use & Produce The Most Energy

  • As of 2006, the US was the highest user of energy
  • As of 2010, China took over as the country using the most energy globally
  • In 2009, Iceland, Trinidad and Tobago, Qatar, and Kuwait were the countries using the most energy per capita/per person
  • Countries that have used the least energy per capita in the past have mainly been based in Sub-Sahara Africa
  • Trends for energy produced have mimicked energy used i.e. China has overtaken the US in the recent decades.
  • Russia is also a significant energy user and producer

 

Which Countries Use The Most Energy In Total

In 2006, the world’s top energy consumers in % were:

CountryPercent of World Energy Consumed
United States21%
China16
Russia6
Japan5
India4
Germany3

– infoplease.com

 

China has overtaken the United States as the world’s largest energy consumer in 2010. China’s 2009 consumption of energy sources ranging from oil and coal to wind and solar power was equal to 2.265 billion tons of oil, compared to 2.169 billion tons used that year by the United States.

– phys.org

 

In 2012, the countries that used the most energy (in quadrillion BTUs) were:

  • China
  • United States
  • Russia
  • India
  • Japan
  • Germany
  • Canada
  • Brazil
  • South Korea
  • France

– e-education.psu.edu

 

Which Countries Use The Most Energy Per Person/Per Capita

In 2009, the countries that used the most energy per capita were (in kg of oil equivalent):

1Iceland16404.7
2Trinidad and Tobago15158.2
3Qatar14911.1
4Kuwait11402.1
5United Arab Emirates8588.0
6Bahrain8096.3
7Brunei Darussalam7971.3
8Luxembourg7934.1
9Canada7534.0
10North America7098.5
11United States7050.6
12Finland6212.9
13Australia5970.9
14Saudi Arabia5888.1
15Norway5849.3
16Oman5554.1
17Belgium5299.7
18Sweden4883.4
19Netherlands4729.2

– economicshelp.org

 

The countries that use the most electricity per capita are:

  1. Iceland
  2. Norway
  3. Bahrain
  4. Qatar
  5. Canada
  6. Kuwait
  7. Finland
  8. Luxembourg
  9. Sweden
  10. United States

The countries that use the least electricity per capita are:

  1. Haiti
  2. South Sudan
  3. Niger
  4. Eritrea
  5. Ethiopia
  6. Benin
  7. Tanzania
  8. Democratic Republic of Congo
  9. Nepal
  10. Nicaragua

– telegraph.co.uk

 

Which Countries Use The Most Energy Per Year

The total energy consumption per capita in kilogrammes of oil equivalent per year, and gigajoules per year, and in watts, as average equivalent power, were:

200320132014
Country/Territorykgoe/aGJ/aWkgoe/aGJ/aWkgoe/a
 Qatar12799.4537.5817041.219120.3803.0525456.8 
Iceland16882.5709.0622477.418177.3763.4424201.217583.6
Trinidad and Tobago15913.3668.3621187.014537.6610.5819355.3 
Bahrain7753.7325.6510323.210171.7427.2113542.6 
 Kuwait12204.3512.5816248.89757.4409.8112991.1 
United Arab Emirates8271.5347.4011012.67691323.0210239.8 
Brunei Darussalam8308.4348.9511061.97392.9310.509842.9 
 Luxembourg8342.5350.3911107.37310.3307.039732.96812.2
Canada7379.6309.949825.27202.2302.499589.07247.2
United States7164.5300.919538.86915.8290.479207.86917.4
Norway6637.4278.778837.06438.8270.438572.65854
Saudi Arabia6167.9259.058212.06363.4267.268472.2 
Oman7187.7301.889569.76232.5261.768297.9 
Finland6787.2285.069036.56074.7255.148087.96266.9
Australia5593.2234.927446.85586.3234.637437.75484.7
South Korea5059.9212.526736.85253.5220.656994.55262
Sweden5468.2229.677280.45131.5215.526832.14811
 Russia4943.1207.616581.25093.1213.91

– wikipedia.org

You can view the full list at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_by_energy_consumption_per_capita

 

Which Countries Produce The Most Energy

In 2006, a total of 469 quadrillion Btus (British Thermal Units) were produced. The breakdown of that was:

CountryBtus produced*
United States71 quadrillion Btu
China67.7 quadrillion Btu
Russia53.3 quadrillion Btu
Saudi Arabia24.7 quadrillion Btu
Canada19.3 quadrillion Btu
Iran13.1 quadrillion Btu

“Btu“ is the abbreviation for British thermal unit. One Btu is nearly equal to the amount of energy released when a wood match is burned

– infoplease.com

 

In 2012, the countries that produced the most energy (in quadrillion BTUs) were:

  • China
  • United States
  • Russia
  • Saudi Arabia
  • Canada
  • Indonesia
  • India
  • Iran
  • Australia
  • Qatar

– e-education.psu.edu

 

Sources

1. https://www.infoplease.com/science-health/energy/top-energy-producers-and-consumers

2. https://www.economicshelp.org/blog/5988/economics/list-of-countries-energy-use-per-capita/

3. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_by_energy_consumption_per_capita

4. https://www.telegraph.co.uk/travel/maps-and-graphics/mapped-the-countries-that-use-the-most-electricity/

5. https://phys.org/news/2010-07-china-surpasses-world-energy-consumer.html