We’ve already written about what the most fertile soil might be.
But, in this guide, we outline where the most fertile soil might be found worldwide, and also by country, and by biome.
What Country Has The Most Fertile Soil In The World?
To answer this question, we can look at:
The country with the most arable land (fertile land suitable for growing crops)
10 of the countries in the world with the most arable land (as a % of overall land found in that country) are Bangladesh, Denmark, the Ukraine, Moldova, India, Hungary, Rwanda, Comoros, Togo and Gambia. (worldatlas.com)
Countries with the most fertile soil by soil order (soil order is a way of categorising soil types)
You can find a map of the world’s soil orders and the countries they are found in at https://www.soils4teachers.org/around-the-world
Additionally, there is a breakdown of each soil order, where that soil order might be found predominantly, and level of fertility of that soil order at https://www.adama.com/documents/130172/4752576/Infographic+Type+Of+Soils
Notes on the more fertile soil orders are:
- Alfisols – Nearly 10% of the world’s ice-free land. Found in Western Europe and parts of North and South America, Africa, India and Australia. Claybased and relatively fertile with high aluminium and iron content.
- Andisols – 1% of the world’s ice-free soil, with pockets in New Zealand, Northwest USA, Chile, Kenya, Indonesia and Japan. Formed from volcanic ash and highly fertile and ideal for crops.
- Mollisols – 7% of the world’s ice-free land. Found in Ukraine, parts of Russia and the USA. Some of the world’s most fertile soil, including the black soils with high organic content.
- Ultisols – 8.5% of the world’s ice-free land. Found in Southern USA and Asia, Africa and South America. Acidic red clay, successful in agriculture if fertilized.
- Vertisols – 2.5% of the world’s ice-free land. Found in India, Australia, subSaharan Africa and South America. Clays expand/contract with water available. With irrigation they support cereal, cotton, sorghum and rice growing.
Which Biome Has The Most Fertile Soil In The World?
You can find a map of the world’s biomes at
Immediately below that map is a map of the world’s soil orders. Each soil order has different characteristics that make it more or less fertile.
What you can do is look what soil orders are found in what biomes according to the two maps.
You can then read about how fertile each soil order is at:
Fore example, Mollisols are found across a range of biomes in the Ukraine, parts of Russia and the USA. Mollisols are some of the world’s most fertile soil, including the black soils with high organic content.
Where Is The Most Fertile Soil In The US? … What State Has The Most Fertile Soil In The United States?
Within a country, soil can differ by state/province, and even within states/provinces themselves.
In the US, each state has a soil representative i.e. a soil which best represents the soil that is found and used in that state.
You can read about the representative soil of each state in the US here:
As one example, the soil in Alabama is well suited to cultivated crops, pasture, hay, woodland, and most urban uses. Cotton and corn are the main cultivated crops. Some areas are used as woodland.
How Fertile Is The Soil In Other Countries? (e.g. Australia, India, and the UK)
Note – Ultimately, There Are 1000’s Of Sub Types Of Soil, & Soil Can Vary Everywhere
The above are general guides on where the most fertile soil might be.
If you read our guide about how soil forms and develops, or the different types of soil found in different countries worldwide, it’s clear that the type of soil you find in one place compared to another is influenced by several different factors.
You can even find different types of of soil on the one plot of land.
Visually inspecting soil, and then testing for things like texture/characteristics, pH, moisture, nutrients/organic matter, and so on, are good ways to understand the exact type of soil on a plot of land.
If you want to find out how fertile the soil is in your country – you can Google a soil map for your country and find out the types of soils found in each region or state, and then look at the fertility rating of that soil specifically, or what can be grown in that soil specifically.