Pros and Cons (Benefits & Disadvantages) Of GMO Crops & Foods

Pros and Cons (Benefits & Disadvantages) Of GMO Crops & Foods

GMO crops and foods make up a large portion of the US market for some crop types now.

With this being the case, it’s worth knowing the pros and cons of GMO foods and crops.

Below we’ve done a quick guide/list of what these potential advantages and disadvantages might be.

 

Summary – Pros & Cons Of GMO Crops & Food

These are general pros and cons of GMO crops and food.

The reality is that the final list of pros and cons can be individual to the type of crop or food being grow, where it’s grown, how it’s grown, how it’s approved and regulated, and so on. So, each set of crops or food being assessed may have different factors or variables to take into consideration.

We actually wrote about how the use of GMOs in the future probably needs much clearer guidelines that bridges both sides of the debate, and considers all GMO seeds/crops/foods individually, along with non GMO technology and practices individually – and compare them objectively with independent short term and long term stats and evidence. Generalising GMOs as a whole is not specific enough.

Here is a condensed list of the potential pros and cons:

 

Pros

  • Plants and crops can be engineered for pest & insect resistance (which can mean less chemical pesticide has to be used and applied)
  • GMO plants and crops can encourage beneficial insects and soil bacteria
  • Plants and crops can be engineered for disease resistance
  • Plants and crops can be engineered for drought resistance (good for drought stricken areas, and also means less water might be used on those plants and crops)
  • Plants and crops can be engineered for an enhanced nutritional profile 
  • Plants and crops can be engineered for herbicide tolerance
  • Plants and crops can be engineered to last longer (which can decrease food loss and waste)
  • Plants and crops can be engineered for more efficient or better manufacturing processes
  • Plants and crops can be engineered for fewer pesticide applications
  • Plants and crops can be engineered for lesser high nitrogen fertilizer input
  • Some of the above engineering means less air, water & soil pollution
  • GMO foods and crops can lead to healthier soil (especially via conservation tillage)
  • GMO foods and crops can lead to safer conditions for farm workers, & less risks to their health
  • GMO foods and crops can lead to less time & effort invested by farmers for the same output/productivity
  • GMO foods and crops can lead to higher yields
  • GMO foods and crops can lead to better revenues & profits
  • Several parties can profit/benefit from GMOs, not just one
  • GMO food and crops can lead to more efficient land use
  • GMOS foods and crops can have a smaller carbon footprint
  • GMO foods and crops can help address other problems like climate change, water scarcity, world hunger, overpopulation, food waste/food loss, and so on
  • GMO food and crops can help preserve or increase biodiversity
  • GMO technology might be able to speed up what similar results we can get from cross breeding
  • Some sources say GMO foods and crops carry no more health risks than conventional food & crops

 

Cons

  • There’s already other solutions to population growth and providing a food supply to additional people
  • Most of the GMO crops we grow go to feed for livestock – which we might be able to cut back on by analyzing and changing our diets
  • Even with independent studies and research, there are questions over whether all independent studies on GMOs get published and/or edited
  • Outcrossing or mixing of genes can occur in the wild (where GE foods and crops mix with conventional or natural foods or crops, or a nut gene gets transferred to a soybean for example), and once GMOs have been released into nature, they can’t be recalled
  • Long term impact of GMOs are questionable or uncertain to some – for humans, animals and environment
  • GMOs could trigger food allergies in some instances
  • GMOs could trigger allergies in a secondary source
  • Could contribute to the formation of antibiotic-resistant bacteria (via gene transfer)
  • Might be connected to cancer formation
  • Companies who own GMO seeds may have a monopoly over the market, which can create power imbalances, conflicts of interest, and reliance (by farmers and others)
  • A specific conflict of interest by GMO seed companies is their ownership of pesticides & herbicides that has grown in use significantly since the introduction of GMOs
  • Farmers in developing countries may be negatively impacted by the power big GMO seed and pesticide companies have in the market (losing leverage, power and independence. Seeds might not be renewable for example)
  • GMO farming may lead to legal issues for some farmers
  • Regulation, approval processes and labelling can get complex, & can cause issues between states, and countries
  • There can be unnecessary external political and economic pressure put on some countries to use or not use GMOs (not related to science and fact)
  • GMO crops can still be lost to weeds naturally resistant to herbicides (so they aren’t perfect), and can be the cause for new super weeds to develop
  • Can reduce biodiversity in some ways – mono cultures, and limited gene set
  • New diseases may emerge
  • Some question the evidence that GMOs provide specific types of benefits 
  • Can be other concerns with GMOs

 

What Are GMO Crops & Foods?

  • When people refer to genetically modified organisms – GMOs – they are referring to crops developed through genetic engineering, a more precise method of plant breeding.
  • Genetic engineering, also referred to as biotechnology, allows plant breeders to take a desirable trait found in nature and transfer it from one plant or organism to the plant they want to improve, as well as make a change to an existing trait in a plant they are developing.
  • Some examples of desirable traits commonly transferred include resistance to insects and disease and tolerance to herbicides that allow farmers to better control weeds.

– gmoanswers.com

 

  • A genetically modified organism (GMO) is any organism whose genetic material has been altered using genetic engineering techniques (i.e., a genetically engineered organism).
  • A more specifically defined type of GMO is a “transgenic organism.” This is an organism whose genetic makeup has been altered by the addition of genetic material from an unrelated organism. This should not be confused with the more general way in which “GMO” is used to classify genetically altered organisms, as typically GMOs are organisms whose genetic makeup has been altered without the addition of genetic material from an unrelated organism.

– wikipedia.org

 

Potential Pros Of GMO Crops & Foods

  • Pest & Insect Resistance

Crops can be engineered to be more pest resistant to whatever the dominant pest or pests are in a particular area.

– bettermeetsreality.com

 

  • Encourages Beneficial Insects

Because there are less target pests, and less pesticide being sprayed, GE crops might encourage more beneficial insect populations

 

  • Disease Resistance

Crops and foods can be GE to be more resistant to certain types of disease that are prevalent to them

 

Through genetic engineering plant breeders can enable plants to resist certain diseases, like the papaya ringspot virus (PRSV).  The GM Rainbow Papaya, developed to be resistant to PRSV, allowed Hawaiian papaya farmers to recover from an outbreak of this devastating disease that crippled their industry.

– gmoanswers.com

 

  • Drought Resistance

GM crops that express drought tolerance have better moisture retention and can better endure drought conditions without the need for additional irrigation.

– gmoanswers.com

 

  • Requires Less Water, & Conserves Water

Crops and foods can be engineered to need less water, which saves freshwater supplies and means less irrigation

– bettermeetsreality.com

 

  • Enhanced Nutritional Profile Or Content Of Foods

Foods can be engineered to have longer shelf life, and have better nutrients, or more of a specific nutrient 

– vittana.org

 

Genetically modified soybeans with an enhanced oil profile, much like olive oil, have been developed and are longer lasting and trans-fat free.

– gmoanswers.com

 

For example, foods can be engineered to take longer to spoil, or to have more protein, vitamins, or calcium for example

 

  • Herbicide Tolerance

Crops developed to tolerate specific herbicides allow farmers to fight weeds by applying targeted herbicides only when needed and enable them to use conservation tillage production methods that preserve topsoil, prevent erosion, and reduce carbon emissions.

– gmoanswers.com

 

  • Reduced Food Waste

Genetic engineering has been used to modify potatoes and apples in order to eliminate superficial browning and bruising (potato only) when the produce is cut or handled.  These traits can help reduce the amount of produce thrown away by producers, processors, retailers and consumers.

– gmoanswers.com

 

  • Improved Manufacturing Processes

Certain biotech corn varieties enable more efficient biofuels production by improving the process through which cellulose and/or starch is broken down and converted to fuel.  This helps reduce the environmental impact of the manufacturing process by decreasing the amount of water, electricity, and natural gas needed to produce biofuel.

– gmoanswers.com

 

  • Fewer Pesticide Applications

Because the crops are more pest resistant, they may not need to be sprayed as frequently or at all – this decreases pesticide costs, and decreases time spent spraying, as well as health and environmental benefits

– bettermeetsreality.com

 

  • Lesser Fertilizer Input

Some GE foods and crops might be engineered in a way to need less fertilizer, or, because the soil is healthier (from conservation tillage, less pesticide, etc.), the crops might need less overall fertilizer input

 

We have GM crop plants with … the ability to produce more food with lower fertiliser inputs

– theconversation.com

 

Less fertilizer can also mean less nitrogen is introduced into the environment – which benefits water, air, wildlife and more – as excess nitrogen has caused issues like air pollution and water pollution

 

  • Less Air, Water & Soil Pollution

Because there are less pesticides that have to be sprayed, there is less pesticide chemical getting into the air, soil and water, leading to cleaner air, water and soil

– bettermeetsreality.com

 

  • Healthier Soil (conservation tillage)

Crops and food that don’t need to be sprayed with herbicides as often or as much don’t need tillage as much. This can help preserve the soil as it’s not getting disturbed and eroded as often, and it also allows mulch and beneficial biomass to build up on the soil more frequently

 

  • Safer Conditions For Farm Workers, & Less Risks To Their Health

Particularly in developing countries where workers are exposed most to harmful chemicals – if there is less pesticide being sprayed – the conditions for farmers and their workers are better as there is less risk to their health

 

  • Less Time & Effort For Farmers

Less pesticide spraying, less tillage, and less organic related farming tasks mean less time and effort expended for farmers and workers on GE crops and food

 

  • Higher Yields & Productivity

GMO farms report higher yields for the same area of land as conventional farming

 

In the most comprehensive meta-analysis (of 147 publications) to date, researchers from Goettingen University have concluded that the adoption of GM technology has:

  • Reduced pesticide use by 37%
  • Increased crop yield by 22%
  • Increased farmer profits by 68%.

The yield and profit gains are considerably higher in developing countries than in developed countries, and 53% of GM crops are grown in developing countries.

– theconverstion.com

 

According to PG Economics, from 1996 to 2015, GMO crops are estimated to have contributed to an additional global production of 357.7 million tons of maize, 180.3 million tons of soybeans, 25.2 million tons of cotton and 10.6 million tons of canola. GM crops have contributed to higher yields, e.g., 30 percent more in some farming areas, and can contribute to poverty reduction and food security in developing countries.

– gmoanswers.com

 

  • Better Revenues & Profits, & Lower Costs

Higher yields, and less input costs, time and effort spent on growing and processing foods and crops – means more revenues and profits

 

  • Several Parties Profit/Benefit From GMOs

The global market for genetically modified crops was estimated at $14.8 billion in 2012.

Studies differ on how this money is divvied up. One 2010 review estimated very roughly that somewhere around one-third of the total economic benefit of GM crop technology goes to seed and chemical companies. Another third accrues to US farmers. The remaining third is split between US consumers and the rest of the world:

But, in general, it’s said that Seed & Chemical companies, US farmers, US consumers, and developed countries all benefit

– vox.com

 

  • Less Land Use

Higher yields for the same area of land, means you use less land overall for GMO farming

 

  • Less Carbon Emissions

Because you are using less inputs to grow foods and crops

 

There can be other benefits in GM crops, beyond yield and resistance. Rice produces 10% of the world’s methane emissions so imagine if somebody could reduce emissions by 90%, and make plants with larger seeds containing more energy.

Chuangxin Sun’s group at Swedish Agricultural University has done precisely that by transferring a single gene from barley to rice.

If all the world’s rice used this technology, it would be the equivalent of closing down 150 coal-fired power stations or removing 120 million cars from the road annually.

– theconversation.com

 

  • Can Help Address Other Social Problems Like Climate Change, Water Scarcity, World Hunger, Overpopulation, Food Waste etc.

All of these issues are either issues right now, or issues heading into the future.

Crops genetically engineered to cope with drought and hot/dry conditions, crops that need less water, and reducing food waste through having foods that last longer can all help address these problems

 

Food can be engineered to last longer, so it can be transported longer distances into rural or remote areas to those with a lack of food.

– vittana.org

 

Genetic engineering has been used to modify potatoes and apples in order to eliminate superficial browning and bruising (potato only) when the produce is cut or handled.  These traits can help reduce the amount of produce thrown away by producers, processors, retailers and consumers.

– gmoanswers.com

 

Through better food production with GE, we may also be able to address other world issues going forward like climate change/global warming, freshwater supply issues, water security, overpopulation, malnutrition and so on

– msutoday.msu.edu

 

  • Can Help Preserve Or Increase Biodiversity, Or Increase The Size Of Genetic Bases

Since we are dealing with narrow genetic and germplasm bases for most of our staple food crops, we may have to reach out to genetic engineering technologies and genes from other sources to improve them further

– msutoday.msu.edu

 

We currently rely on very few plant species for the majority of the world’s food production. More than half of our plant-derived energy intake comes from just three grasses (wheat, rice and corn). Gene editing could provide a way to expand this.

– theconversation.com

 

GM crops increase productivity on existing agricultural land and protect biodiversity by sparing lands not intensively cultivated. Through enhanced adoption of conservation tillage practices, the reduction of insecticide use, and the use of more environmentally benign herbicides that increase yields, GM agriculture has alleviated pressure to convert additional land into agricultural use.

– gmoanswers.com

 

  • GMO technology might be able to speed up what similar results we can get from cross breeding

[A Mexico City-based organization has created drought resistant maize varieties that yield up to 30% higher than commercial seeds under drought conditions … but this has taken years and decades to achieve … and they are 10 years or more from economic commercialization]

– forbes.com

 

  • GMOs Carry No More Health Risks Than Conventional Food & Crops

Various sources say GMO foods provide the same nutrients and the same health risks as organic foods

– vittana.org

 

Potential Cons Of GMO Crops & Foods

  • There’s already other solutions to population growth, and the associated need for a food supply for these people

Investing in cold food storage and transport technology for developing countries can cut down on food loss in developing countries

Cutting down on food waste in developed countries will save a lot of resources spent producing these foods

Along with these two solutions, there’s other solutions that can help provide a food supply to a growing population other than just GMO food and crops.

 

  • Most of the GMO crops we grow go to feed for livestock – which we might be able to cut back on by analyzing and changing our diets

Food-producing animals consume 70% to 90% of genetically engineered crop biomass, mostly corn and soybean

– forbes.com

 

If we stop eating as much livestock products, and look at the benefits of plant based diets, there is less of a need for GMO developing, funding and use.

 

  • Even With Independent Studies & Research, There Are Questions Over Whether All Independent Studies Get Published Or Edited

User agreements with half of today’s leading GMO seed producers prohibit the use of independent research on the final product. This helps to protect the royalties that the companies earn when farmers are able to harvest a yield through the use of their seeds. Since the seeds are considered company property, even the unintended growing of a GMO crop can result in the need to pay a royalty.

– vittana.org

 

Research into GM seeds is tightly controlled by the agritech companies that have given themselves the power to quash the work of independent researchers. Research on genetically modified seeds is still done by independent scientists, but only studies that the seed companies have approved are published in peer-reviewed journals.

– choice.com.au

 

  • Outcrossing Or Mixing Of Genes Can Occur In The Wild

Where GE foods and crops mix with conventional or natural foods or crops, or a nut gene gets transferred to a soybean for example

 

In 2000, it was found that a pest-repelling GMO corn crop that was only approved for feeding animals had cross-pollinated conventional corn crops nearby that were intended for human food.

– choice.com.au

 

  • Long Term Impacts Of GMOs Are Questionable Or Uncertain To Some

There are claims that there aren’t enough long term studies into the long term impact of GMOs on humans, animals and the environment

 

In the absence of credible independent long-term feeding studies, the safety of GMOs is unknown. 

– nongmoproject.org

 

The Australian Organic organisation says … there are no long-term studies on human health.

– theconversation.com

 

  • Could Trigger Food Allergies

There is no clear evidence that supports this, but it is an idea that some people believe could be true

– vittana.org

 

  • Could Trigger Allergies In A Secondary Source

In one case, GMOs that contained proteins from Brazil nuts were found to trigger an allergic reaction in people who are allergic to them. Because of this, any proteins that come from a different food item must be listed as part of the ingredients or growing process and be tested to determine their ability to cause an allergic reaction.

– vittana.org

 

In 1996, researchers found that when an allergenic Brazil nut gene was transferred into a soybean, the allergenicity from the Brazil nuts was transferred too. It wasn’t approved for market and, since then, the FAO and WHO say that allergenic proteins are not allowed to be transferred into a GMO.

– choice.com.au

 

  • May Cause Gene Transfer Of Antibiotic Resistance

GMOs are often incorporated with antibiotic-resistant genes in order to strengthen the crops that will grow. There is speculation, but no confirmed facts or correlations, that this process could be contributing to the formation of antibiotic-resistant bacteria.

– vittana.org

 

Although the probability is low, gene transfer from GM foods into bacteria in our gut, or cells in our body, could occur. There are fears that antibiotic-resistant genes used as markers when creating GMOs could contribute to antibiotic resistance.

– choice.com.au

 

  • Might Be Connected To Cancer Formation

A paper that was first published in 2013 linked the herbicide that is found in Roundup-tolerant crops to cancer development in rats. Some people are skeptical of eating corn because of this

– vittana.org

 

  • Companies Who Own GMO Seeds May Have Somewhat Of A Monopoly Over The Market

There are 5 other companies that, along with Monsanto, control nearly all of the GMO seed market. This include Sungenta, Dow Agrosciences, Bayer, BASF, and DuPont. This means a majority of corn and soybean products are not only profiting the farmer, but they are profiting companies as well.

– vittana.org

 

Many believe that the dominance of the global GM seed and agrichemicals market by a handful of chemical companies (including Dow Chemical, Du Pont, Monsanto, Bayer, ChemChina and Syngenta) puts farmers in financially vulnerable situations, particularly in developing countries.

Where once farmers had choice and saved their own seeds for crop regeneration, now Monsanto has them sign a user agreement that prevents them from saving and replanting the seeds, forcing them to reinvest each season. 

– choice.com.au

 

  • A specific conflict of interest by GMO seed companies is their ownership of pesticides & herbicides that has grown in use significantly since the introduction of GMOs

Biotech companies have certainly profited from GM crops, not least because seeds and genetic innovations can be patented. Monsanto, for instance, can sell both Roundup herbicide and Roundup-resistant corn and soybeans to farmers, who must repurchase the seeds every year.

– vox.com

 

More than 80% of all genetically modified crops grown worldwide have been engineered for herbicide tolerance. As a result, the use of toxic herbicides, such as Roundup®, has increased fifteenfold since GMOs were first introduced

– nongmoproject.org

 

  • Developing Country Farmers May Be Subject To Power Than Big GMO Companies Have

Losing leverage, power and independence, and going into debt.

Seeds might not be renewable for example or farmers may be limited by the seeds they can choose from to grow (by way of contract) – which can put developing country farmers in debt if they don’t make a profit on one particular season

 

… the companies that make GMOs now have the power to sue farmers whose fields have been contaminated with GMOs, even when it is the result of the drift of pollen from neighboring fields. Genetically modified crops therefore pose a serious threat to farmer sovereignty and to the national food security of any country where they are grown

– nongmoproject.org

 

 

  • GMO Farming May Cause Legal Trouble For Some Farmers

To protect GMO profits, patents are sought on certain seeds, which has caused legal troubles for some farmers who have had GMO seeds cross-pollinate with their crops, despite not planting GMOs.

– vittana.org

 

  • Regulation, Approval Processes and Labelling Can Get Complex, & Can Cause Issues Between States, And Between Countries

Regulations can different between what is allowed to be grown, and what GE ingredients are allowed in each country

Regulations can different between states within a country – making conforming to a federal GE regulation difficult 

Labelling is also contentious – with different requirements for what should be put on GE ingredient food in supermarkets. Some people want to know whether their food includes GE ingredients, while other don’t mind. Different countries have different regulations on whether GE ingredients need to be identified on a label

The approval process for gene editing for example is also an issue in places like Europe because it pushes up barriers to entry to the market, and might be driving money and talent out of Europe. In the US, approval and regulation isn’t as strict – but then safety may be an issue. There should be a middle ground between the two approaches

 

  • There Can Be External Political, Economic & Other Reasons To Not Use or Use GMOs 

Such as some countries in Africa who might be hesitant to introduce GM food and crops through fear of damaging trade relations with Europe, who has strict regulations on growing GM food

– theconversation.com

 

When nations ban the importation or cultivation of GMO products, such moves are generally driven not by science, as the independent science organizations in every major country have come out with public statements that GM products are safe.

Other factors are trade protectionism, pressure from activists, public uneasiness or a desire to protect a country’s image—such as the French belief that genetic crops could “contaminate” the country’s reputation as a world food capital.

As is often the case with GMOs, the situation in the European Union suggests how divisive and political this issue has become.

The EU has witnessed numerous skirmishes between scientists and politically-based opposition.

Scottish leaders, for example, admitted that their decision to opt out of GMO cultivation was based on marketing concerns, rather than science. And when the European Commission’s science adviser, Anne Glover, spoke in favor of the science of genetic engineering, she found herself out of a job following intense lobbying by opposition groups.

Bans almost always run counter to the advice of scientists and agricultural experts in the nations where they are implemented.

– gmo.geneticliteracyproject.org

 

  • It Is Believed There Is Some Connection Between Herbicide Resistant Crops, & The Development Of Herbicide Resistant Weeds In The US – Which Has Actually Led To An Increase In The Use Of Some Types Of Herbicides, and Super Weeds Developing

We are talking about the impact of Glyphosate, Roundup, Glyphosate Tolerant Crops, Glyphosate Resistant Weeds and so on

– blogs.umass.edu

 

Genetically modified crops also are responsible for the emergence of “superweeds” and “superbugs,” which can only be killed with ever more toxic poisons such as 2,4-D (a major ingredient in Agent Orange)

– nongmoproject.org

 

  • The Increase In Herbicide Usage Can Cause Environmental & Wildlife Damage

Due to runoff into soil and water

And this affects amphibians and other types of wildlife

– blogs.umass.edu

 

  • GMO Crops Can Still Be Lost To Weeds Naturally Resistant To Herbicides

There are currently 64 different types of weeds which have been proven to be resistant to atrazine – all without GMO pairing. Farmers can lose up to half their yield from these atrazine-resistant weeds

– vittana.org

 

  • Can Reduce Biodiversity In Some Ways, Or Place Environmental Pressure On Other Plants, Crops & Foods

Modified organisms could be inbred with natural organisms, leading to the possible extinction of the original organism 

– livescience.com

 

If plants and crops and food are continually engineered and bred for the same traits – there may be a loss of overall diversity of genetic information, despite the more favorable new crops and foods being better for farmers and consumers

 

  • New Diseases May Emerge

Bacteria and viruses are sometimes used in gene modification, and some people believe this could lead to new pathogens. This is more so speculation at this point though

– choice.com.au

 

  • There Some Debate That Many Of The Pros Listed Above Might Not Be Exclusive To GMOs When Compared To The Results Achieved With Some Sustainable Or Organic Type Farming

We are talking about pros like increased yields, reduced pesticide use, reduced energy usage, increased revenues and so on

– http://earthopensource.org

 

  • Some Question The Evidence That GMOs Provide Specific Benefits

Despite biotech industry promises, there is no evidence that any of the GMOs currently on the market offer increased yield, drought tolerance, enhanced nutrition, or any other consumer benefit.

– nongmoproject.org

 

Monsanto had marketed a drought-resistant corn product, but that this has not had great commercial uptake and its efficacy was questioned by a scientific study … [it is worth noting though that] Arcadia has not yet received regulatory approval for the product, so has not been able to sell drought-tolerant soybeans in Argentina. As such, the commercial impact of the product is still uncertain. 

– forbes.com

 

  • Can Be Other Concerns With GMOs

The key areas of controversy related to GMO food are whether GM food should be labeled, the role of government regulators, the effect of GM crops on health and the environment, the effect on pesticide resistance, the impact of GM crops for farmers, and the role of GM crops in feeding the world population.

The Organic Consumers Association, and the Union of Concerned Scientists, and Greenpeace stated that risks have not been adequately identified and managed, and they have questioned the objectivity of regulatory authorities.

Some health groups say there are unanswered questions regarding the potential long-term impact on human health from food derived from GMOs, and propose mandatory labelling or a moratorium on such products.

Concerns include contamination of the non-genetically modified food supply, effects of GMOs on the environment and nature, the rigor of the regulatory process, and consolidation of control of the food supply in companies that make and sell GMOs, or concerns over the use of herbicides with glyphosate.

– wikipedia.org

 

[we should be] very worried about the current implementation of GMO due to its effects on cropland, the ecosystem, and human health, and that research into GMOs is taking resources away from potentially much more helpful cross-breeding projects in the short run.

– forbes.com

 

Read some more reasons why some sources say to avoid GMOs at https://responsibletechnology.org/10-reasons-to-avoid-gmos/ 

 

Some Sources That Question How Safe GMOs Are In General

  • responsibletechnology.org goes as far as to say ‘GMOs are unhealthy’ and outlines human related health issue patterns, trends or occurrences that might be linked with GMOs
  • nongmoproject.org points out that “In the absence of credible independent long-term feeding studies, the safety of GMOs is unknown”
  • Forbes.com says that “the current implementation of GMO due to its effects on cropland, the ecosystem, and human health, and that research into GMOs is taking resources away from potentially much more helpful cross-breeding projects in the short run.”
  • What we do know is that the introduction of GMOs has coincided with a steep increase of the use of pesticides…
  • theconversation.com says that ‘glyphosate is safe if used as directed’ and there is ‘no statistically significant evidence for an association [of glyphosate] with cancer’
  • But, Forbes.com points out ‘While Roundup has not tested as toxic to humans and other mammals, the longer it has been on the market, the worse its effects on soil health and long-term plant fecundity appear. In addition, Roundup Ready plants may not allow necessary micronutrients to be absorbed by animals consuming them’

 

Some Stats On GMO Foods & Crops

Read more about GMO stats and facts in this guide:

 

Other Resources/Guides On GMOs That You Might Be Interested In Reading

 

Sources

1. https://vittana.org/13-vital-pros-and-cons-of-gmos

2. https://gmoanswers.com/gmo-myths-vs-facts

3. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Genetically_modified_organism

4. https://www.bettermeetsreality.com/pros-cons-advantages-disadvantages-of-organic-cotton/

5. https://gmoanswers.com/gmo-basics 

6. https://www.choice.com.au/food-and-drink/food-warnings-and-safety/food-safety/articles/are-you-eating-gm-food#2%20what%20GM%20foods%20are%20grown%20in%20australia? 

7. https://www.livescience.com/40895-gmo-facts.html 

8. https://theconversation.com/gm-crops-can-benefit-organic-farmers-too-51318  

9. https://theconversation.com/why-genetically-modified-crops-have-been-slow-to-take-hold-in-africa-44195 

10. https://theconversation.com/tweaking-just-a-few-genes-in-wild-plants-can-create-new-food-crops-but-lets-get-the-regulation-right-104490  

11. https://gmo.geneticliteracyproject.org/FAQ/where-are-gmos-grown-and-banned/ 

12. https://blogs.umass.edu/natsci397a-eross/environmental-impact-of-gmos/comment-page-1/

13. http://earthopensource.org/gmomythsandtruths/sample-page/summary/ 

14. https://www.vox.com/2014/11/3/18092770/who-profits-from-gmo-technology

15. https://www.nongmoproject.org/gmo-facts/

16. https://www.forbes.com/sites/erikkobayashisolomon/2019/02/15/heres-the-real-reason-why-gmos-are-bad-and-why-they-may-save-humanity/#371234154877

17. https://responsibletechnology.org/10-reasons-to-avoid-gmos/

18. https://www.bettermeetsreality.com/interesting-important-gmo-facts-stats/

19. https://theconversation.com/stop-worrying-and-trust-the-evidence-its-very-unlikely-roundup-causes-cancer-104554

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