A Breakdown Of Energy Use & Production In China Now & In The Future

A Breakdown Of Energy Use & Production In China Now & In The Future

China is one of the primary energy consumers and producers in the world,

It’s important to know how much energy they produce and consumer, and where this energy comes from.

In this guide we do an overview of that, and look at where energy trends might be going in the future.

 

Summary – Energy Use & Production In China

  • China is the current global highest user and producer of energy
  • Most of China’s energy right now comes from coal (In 2016, coal made up 62 percent of China’s energy use)
  • Despite trying to use more natural gas, and investing in renewables, China is still fairly dependent on coal in the short to medium term for various reasons
  • In 2015, most of China’s energy and coal use came from the industrial sector, with 67.9 percent of the country’s energy use and 54.2 percent of its coal use due to manufacturing, agriculture, and construction.
  • An additional 41.8 percent of China’s coal consumption came from power production activities.
  • In the industrial sector, six industries – electricity generation, steel, non-ferrous metals, construction materials, oil processing and chemicals – account for nearly 70% of energy use.

 

Breakdown Of China’s Overall Energy Use, Production & Import

In 2010, China:

  • Had a population of 1,338 million
  • Had a primary energy consumption of 28,111 TWh
  • Had energy production of 25,690 TWh
  • Imported 3,905 TWh of energy
  • Had 3,938 TWh of electricity
  • Had 7,270 Mt of C02 emissions

– wikipedia.org

 

How Much Energy China Uses/Consumes

  • The total consumption of energy in China is 5,920.00 billion kWh of electric energy per year. Per capita this is an average of 4,270 kWh.

– worlddata.info

You can find a total overview of energy consumption at https://www.worlddata.info/asia/china/energy-consumption.php

 

  • In 2013, China’s total annual electricity output was 5.398 trillion kWh  and the annual consumption was 5.380 trillion kWh with an installed capacity of 1247 GW (all the largest in the world).

– wikipedia.org

 

Energy Use By Sector In China

  • In 2015, most of China’s energy and coal use came from the industrial sector, with 67.9 percent of the country’s energy use and 54.2 percent of its coal use due to manufacturing, agriculture, and construction.
  • An additional 41.8 percent of China’s coal consumption came from power production activities.

– chinapower.csis.org

 

  • In the industrial sector, six industries – electricity generation, steel, non-ferrous metals, construction materials, oil processing and chemicals – account for nearly 70% of energy use.
  • In the construction materials sector, China produced about 44% of the world’s cement in 2006. Cement production produces more carbon emissions than any other industrial process, accounting for around 4% of global carbon emissions.

– wikipedia.org

 

Breakdown Of Energy Consumption By Energy Sources In China

  • Over the last half century, China’s large manufacturing-based economy has primarily been fueled by coal. From 1990 to 2015, China increased its coal consumption from 1.05 billion tons to 3.97 billion tons. In 2016, coal made up 62 percent of China’s energy use. Since 2011, China has consumed more coal than the rest of the world combined.
  • In 2017, China consumed 240.4 billion-meter cubic meters of natural gas, making up 6.4 percent of China’s total energy consumption.

– chinapower.csis.org

 

In 2012:

  • Coal supplied the majority (nearly 66%) of China’s total energy consumption in 2012.
  • The second ­largest source was petroleum and other liquids, accounting for nearly 20% of the country’s total energy consumption.
  • Although China has made an effort to diversify its energy supplies, hydroelectric sources (8%), natural gas (5%), nuclear power (nearly 1%), and other renewables (more than 1%) accounted for relatively small shares of China’s energy consumption.

– energy.gov

 

  • Coal – Coal remains the foundation of the Chinese energy system, covering close to 70 percent of the country’s primary energy needs and representing 80 percent of the fuel used in electricity generation.
  • Renewables – Approximately 7% of China’s energy was from renewable sources in 2006

– wikipedia.org

 

How Much Energy China Produces

  • China had an energy production of 25,690 TWh in 2010.

– wikipedia.org

 

Energy Production & Supply By Energy Sources In China

  • Coal – China is the largest producer and consumer of coal in the world and accounts for about half of the world’s coal consumption. According to the World Energy Council, China held an estimated 126 billion short tons of proved recoverable coal reserves in 2011, the thirdlargest in the world behind the United States and Russia, and equivalent to about 13% of the world’s total coal reserves. Coal production rose 9% in 2013 from 2012 to nearly 4.4 billion short tons
  • Oil – In 2014, China produced nearly 4.6 million barrels per day (bbl/d) of petroleum and other liquids, of which 92% was crude oil and the remainder was non­refining liquids and refining gain. EIA forecasts China’s oil production will increase slightly to higher than 4.6 million bbl/d by the end of 2016. In the medium and long term, EIA predicts China’s oil production will grow incrementally to 5.1 million bbl/d by 2020, 5.5 million bbl/d by 2030, and 5.7 million bbl/d by 2040.
  • Natural Gas – Although natural gas production and use is rapidly increasing in China, the fuel comprised only 5% of the country’s total primary energy consumption in 2012. China held 164 trillion cubic feet (Tcf) of proved natural gas reserves in January 2015. The Chinese government anticipates boosting the share of natural gas as part of total energy consumption to at least 10% by 2020

– energy.gov

 

  • Roughly 72 percent of the electrical power generated in China in 2015 came from coal-powered plants
  • China’s electricity generated by wind power accounted for just 2.1 percent of its total consumption in 2012
  • As of July 2018, China operated 41 nuclear power reactors, which generated 38,419 (MW) of energy.
  • China’s electricity generated by wind power accounted for just 2.1 percent of its total consumption in 2012

– chinapower.csis.org

 

  • Coal – In 2009, China’s coal supply was 18,449 TWh which was 47% of the world coal supply. In 2015, China produced 3,527 Mt, Net imported 199 Mt, and had 3,726 Mt net coal available.
  • Oil/Petroleum – China’s oil supply was 4,855 TWh in 2009 which represented 10% of the world’s supply.
  • Natural Gas – China’s natural gas supply was 1,015 TWh in 2009 that was 3% of the world supply.

– wikipedia.org

 

China’s Installed Energy Capacity

In 2016, the installed capacity by technology of each energy source in China in Gigawatts was:

  • Coal – 945GW
  • Gas – 67GW
  • Oil – 9GW
  • Nuclear – 34GW
  • Hydro – 332GW
  • Bioenergy – 12GW
  • Wind – 149GW
  • Solar – 77GW

– iea.org

 

In 2040, the installed capacity by technology of each energy source in China in Gigawatts is forecast to be:

  • Coal – 1087GW
  • Gas – 219GW
  • Nuclear – 145GW
  • Hydro – 493GW
  • Bioenergy – 49GW
  • Wind – 593GW
  • Solar – 738GW
  • Oil – 0GW

– iea.org

 

How China Compares To The Rest Of The World In Energy Consumption & Production

Read a quick guide of which countries use and produce the most energy.

 

Recent Trends, & Where Energy Production & Consumption Is Heading In The Future For China

  • The Chinese government plans to cap coal use to 62% of total primary energy consumption by 2020 in an effort to reduce heavy air pollution that has afflicted certain areas of the country in recent years.
  • China’s National Energy Agency claims that coal use dropped to 64.2% of energy consumption in 2014.
  • The Chinese government set a target to raise non ­fossil fuel energy consumption to 15% of the energy mix by 2020 and to 20% by 2030 in an effort to ease the country’s dependence on coal.
  • In addition, China is currently increasing its use of natural gas to replace some coal and oil as a cleaner burning fossil fuel and plans to use natural gas for 10% of its energy consumption by 2020.
  • Even though absolute coal consumption is expected to increase over the long term as total energy consumption rises, higher energy efficiency and China’s goal to increase environmental sustainability are likely to lead to a decrease in coal’s share.

– energy.gov

 

  • China is increasingly looking toward securing its future energy needs with sustainable alternatives.
  • Over the last decade, China’s investment in renewable energy and natural gas has surged. In 2017, almost half of global renewable energy investment came from China, totaling $125.9 billion. This is more than double the $53.3 billion that China invested in renewables in 2013. China is becoming the largest market in the world for renewable energy. It is estimated that 1 in every 4 gigawatts of global renewable energy will be generated by China through 2040.

– chinapower.csis.org

 

China’s Electricity Generation Breakdown

  • In 2013, China’s total annual electricity output was 5.398 trillion kWh and the annual consumption was 5.380 trillion kWh with an installed capacity of 1247 GW (all the largest in the world).
  • Coal – In 2015, China generated 73% of its electricity from coal-fired power stations, which has been dropping from a peak of 81% in 2007.
  • Renewables – China is the world’s leading renewable energy producer, with an installed capacity of 152 GW. Approximately 7% of China’s energy was from renewable sources in 2006, a figure targeted to rise to 10% by 2010 and to 16% by 2020. The major renewable energy source in China is hydropower. Total hydro-electric output in China in 2009 was 615.64 TWh, constituting 16.6% of all electricity generated.
  • Nuclear Power – In 2012, China had 15 nuclear power units with a total electric capacity of 11 GW and total output of 54.8 billion kWh, accounting for 1.9% country’s total electricity output. This rose to 17 reactors in 2013. By 2016 the number of operating nuclear reactors was 32 with 22 under construction and other dozen to start construction this year. There are plans to increase nuclear power capacity and nuclear power percentage, bringing the total electricity output to 86 GW and 4% respectively by 2020. Plans are to increase this to 200 GWe by 2030, and 400 GWe by 2050. China has set an end-of-the-Century goal 1500GWs of nuclear energy, most of this from fast reactors.

– wikipedia.org/

 

You can read more about China’s electricity sector and breakdowns by electricity energy sources at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electricity_sector_in_China

 

Renewable Energy Production & Consumption In China

  • China is the world’s largest renewable energy producer. China is the largest producer of hydroelectricity, solar power and wind power in the world.

– wikipedia.org

 

  • Hydroelectric – Hydroelectric power has become China’s main source of renewable energy production. The controversial Three Gorges Dam, completed in 2012 at a cost of over $37 billion, is the largest hydroelectric dam in the world and boasts a generation capacity of 22,500 MW. The dam generates 60 percent more electricity than the second-largest hydropower dam, the Itaipu dam in Brazil and Paraguay.
  • Including the Three Gorges Dam, China has constructed 4 of the top 10 largest energy-producing hydroelectric dams in the world. From 2000 to 2015, China increased its hydroelectric energy-generation capacity by an impressive 408 percent. As a result of the Three Gorges Dam and other projects, China became the world leader in hydropower in 2014.
  • Solar – Over the past decade China has also emerged as a global leader in wind and solar photovoltaic (PV) energy. China’s electricity generated by wind power accounted for just 2.1 percent of its total consumption in 2012, compared to 3.7 in the United States and 9.4 percent in Germany. By 2015, China accounted for one-third of global wind-energy capacity. China’s wind power capacity in 2017 surged to 16,367 megawatts (MW), a 10.5 percent increase from the previous year.
  • China is now home to two-thirds of the world’s solar-production capacity.
  • How much the solar market in China can grow is in dispute due to an over-saturated domestic market, and the ongoing trade dispute between the US and China

– chinapower.csis.org

 

In 2012, China invested $65.1 billion USD in clean energy (20% more than in 2011), fully 30% of the total investment by the G-20, including 25% ($31.2 billion USD) of global solar energy investment, 37% percent ($27.2 billion USD) of global wind energy investment, and 47% ($6.3 billion USD) of global investment in “other renewable energy” (small hydro, geothermal, marine, and biomass); 23 GW of clean generation capacity was installed.

China is also the largest producer of wind turbines and solar panels. Approximately 7% of China’s energy was from renewable sources in 2006, a figure targeted to rise to 10% by 2010 and to 16% by 2020. The major renewable energy source in China is hydropower. Total hydro-electric output in China in 2009 was 615.64 TWh, constituting 16.6% of all electricity generated.

Although a majority of the renewable energy in China is from hydropower, other renewable energy sources are in rapid development:

  • Bioenergy – In 2006, 16 million tons of corn have been used to produce ethanol. However, because food prices in China rose sharply during 2007, China has decided to ban the further expansion of the corn ethanol industry. It has since restarted, but there are concerns it may cause environmental damage.
  • Solar Power – China has become the world’s largest consumer of solar energy. In 2007, 0.82 GW of Solar PV was produced, second only to Japan.
  • Wind Power – China’s total wind power capacity reached 2.67 gigawatts (GW) in 2006, 6.05 GW by 2007, 12.2 GW by 2008, 25 GW by 2009, and 44.7 GW by 2010, making China the world leader in installed wind power generation capacity.

– wikipedia.org

 

Sources

1. https://www.iea.org/weo/china/

2. https://china.lbl.gov/sites/default/files/misc/ced-9-2017-final.pdf

3. https://www.worlddata.info/asia/china/energy-consumption.php

4. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electricity_sector_in_China

5. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Energy_policy_of_China

6. https://www.energy.gov/sites/prod/files/2016/04/f30/China_International_Analysis_US.pdf

7. https://chinapower.csis.org/energy-footprint/

8. https://www.understandchinaenergy.org/

Leave a Comment